Looking Back at Chocolate History during the 18th Century

The chocolate drink was luxurious, classy and exclusive to noble men; thereby, has really made its way to being a popular treat in the elite class. The 18th century made out the commercialization of the popular chocolate drink and the costs of such chocolates began to plunge in Bristol in England.

The First Chocolate Factory Built in 1728

It was in 1728 that Fry set up the first ever commercial chocolate factory recognized and respected in New England. A labor-intensive work force has been the main inventor of chocolates until the Industrial Revolution arrived. It was almost at this point when accumulated manufacture of chocolates began with the innovation of the well-acclaimed cocoa press which made the pulverizing of beans much faster, simpler and more enhanced.

Chocolate Improvements during the 1800s

Also it was during the 1800s that several improvements were made to give chocolates better and better taste as well as texture and appearance. Chocolates in solid form, that is the bars we know today, was born and milk was added to make chocolate creamier, the milk chocolates that we just can’t resist to nibble! This is how the journey of these sweet delectable chocolates started, leading to innovations of the more popular chocolate bars and delectable milk chocolates.

Chocolate Innovations through the Years

Novel people, who have so much love and passion in improving chocolates, have concocted more and more of chocolate variations, coming out up with the good old chocolate bars we have known as a child and love as adults. Until today, chocolates seize several special kinds, shapes, flavors and sizes.

Chocolates Not Bar-Bound nor Drink-Bound Anymore

And modern times had it that chocolates were not merely used as a flavor, no longer confining chocolates to just the usual chocolate bars or chocolate drinks available in the local grocery stores or chocolate shops. Nowadays, there is an endless selection of products with chocolates such as ice creams with a wide assortment of chocolate flavors, cakes as well as candies.

Chocolate Industry Getting Bigger and Bigger

It is good to know that chocolate have become truly one of the biggest manufacturing industries in the consumer and corporate global world that we currently enjoy as of now. The chocolate industry has already established a constant market that doesn’t choose any age. Now that you are knowledgeable about the history of chocolates, maybe next time you take hold of a bar of chocolate or drink a cup of chocolate beverage, you will feel more satisfied to know that the chocolates you are enjoying at present were once limited to the nobilities and royalties alone!

Discovery of Solid Chocolates

The breakthrough of the well-known solid dice of chocolates is not very, very old. It was an English company in 1847 that was fortunate enough to get accredited with the production of fondant chocolates using some smooth and velvety appearing chocolates.

Full-Grown Manufacture of Chocolates

However, the full-grown manufacture of chocolates can be traced back to 1765 in New England when during that time; it was the grained chocolates that dominated the chocolate world market. One noteworthy improvement happened in Vevey in Switzerland in the year 1876. It was when Daniel Peter, a natural Swiss discovered a brilliant way of how to add milk to some chocolates. Thanks to Daniel peter, he has concocted the basic version of today’s well-liked milk chocolate that I personally, love and enjoy so much!

Garage Organization Made Simple

You’ve conquered your house, your home office, and your car, and you’ve mastered the art of scheduling and cooking in bulk. But your garage is still a cluttered and unorganized mess. As with everything else, a neat and organized garage is attainable with just a little elbow grease and some simple storage solutions.
First, get a handle on the mess by moving everything out to sort through what goes and what stays. Large, clear plastic containers can help you do this. They’re great for clearing away the clutter and then using for storage. Be ruthless with yourself during the sorting and purging process. Don’t keep paint from a project from two years ago, and if you have parts to things you no longer have, get rid of the parts as well.
Consider adding a cabinet to your garage. Look for units that offer keyed locks, so you’re able to store poisonous materials and sharp tools out of children’s reach.
The garage is also where most of your kid’s sporting goods land. To keep bats and balls organized, purchase a hamper-style organizer. Designate a section for each child. Add a bin or shelf outside to store messy, muddy shoes as well.
Find a workable storage solution for all the little things in your garage. Organize bolts, screws, nails, fasteners and other small parts into small clear containers so you can easily see what each contains. Organize into steady stacks or consider installing a shelving unit to house these out of the reach of small and curious fingers.
For long-handled items, such as rakes and shovels, look for storage units to keep everything straight or use a durable rubber trash can. Pegboards can also be installed on garage walls, and can be a simple solution for hanging items such as rakes or shovels out of the way. They can also be hung on hooks. Inexpensive hooks come in a variety of sizes. Large deep hooks are perfect for hanging a ladder and bikes can be hung and kept off the garage floor as well.
Now that you’ve practiced on your house, your office and your car, organizing your garage is a snap with a little creativity, some hard work, and a well thought out plan.

Modern Oil Paintings

I have been buying modern oil paintings for a show in my gallery. I have found many nice pieces. I found a painting called Village in winter in a private collection in Illinois. The artist was Fern Isabel Coppedge and she was an American. I liked the piece because of the snowy scene. It reminded me of my childhood.

While on a buying trip, I found Clouds Over Buckingham. This was a really nice modern oil painting that was in a private collection in Pennsylvania. I have seen work by this artist before and it always resells very well.

Buying modern oil paintings has taken me to various places across the United States. I especially liked Main Line, Pennsylvania. That is where I acquired Leaning Silo. The artist of Leaning Silo was Arthur Meltzer. I had been previously unfamiliar with him.

I enjoyed my trip to Long Island City. I was buying modern oil paintings and found one from a French artist named Georges Antoine Rochegrosse that I really liked. This painting was painted around 1900 and it was full of flowers. I really liked it and think it will do well in the show.

I find that I can buy modern oil paintings very efficiently on the internet. I found an art dealer in the United Kingdom that finds me some very nice items to show. Recently, he sent me a painting of a nude beauty by British artist Allan Douglas Davidson.

The modern oil painting depicted a young Bohemian woman wearing only flowers in her hair. She also has large gold earrings. She is posed against a dark background which highlights the perfection of her creamy skin.

The still life I recently acquired was so amazingly real looking. This was one of the most beautiful modern oil paintings that I’ve found. The detail was exceptional and the representation of the blooming rose was breathtaking.

I was so lucky when I found an original Max Ernst modern oil painting. The title of the piece I found was Arizona Desert. I really think it will do well in my show and I didn’t even pay half of what I think it is really worth. It will make a great addition to someone’s collection.

I found a modern oil painting by the Spanish artist Grifoll that I liked. I’m not sure how well this painting of a clown will sell, but I liked it and I think that there is bound to be someone who just can’t live without it.

I just adore paintings that depict Paris. I don’t even care about the period or the style. I was able to find a really nice modern oil painting by Edouard Cortes for my show. The painting depicts flower vendors and a horse carriage. I almost feel like I’m in turn of the century Paris when I look into it for a long time.

There are a lot of modern oil paintings that depict roses. I plan to have a grouping of several at my show. I was able to buy a painting by Theresa Bernstein called Roses that she painted in the 1940s. She lived to be 111 years old and that is pretty amazing.

A popular theme among modern oil paintings is nautical. I really do not like nautical paintings and don’t want them in my show. I have had several friends implore me to change my mind. I keep being told that I can’t possibly have a show of modern oil paintings that does not include a ship.

I had an assistant bring in a modern oil painting that had an interesting history. It was more because of the history of the painting that I decided to hang it than because of its content. The ship scene was really not to my liking, but I bought it anyway.

I have been looking for an antique street scene painted by Bettylane Resnik. I saw a modern oil painting by her in an art catalog that depicted a really colorful street scene. I can’t seem to find the current owner, but I’m trying. I think that it would complete my show.

How Nintendo Wii Fit Video Game Can Help You Maintain Your Fitness and Health

The Nintendo Wii is one of the hottest selling video game consoles ever to hit the market today. This video game console doesn’t just let you play with video games but it will truly make you feel like you are a part of the game.

Today, the Nintendo Wii has released another add-on. Called the Nintendo Wii Fit, this particular game focuses on health and fitness. Everybody knows that people today doesn’t get enough exercise. Obesity and being overweight is becoming a very big problem in today’s society. Nintendo understands this which is why they developed the Nintendo Wii Fit.

First of all, you have to consider the fact that the thought of exercise alone is very boring. In fact, a lot of people who owns treadmills don’t even use it. And, people who have gym memberships don’t even workout.

With the Nintendo Wii Fit, you will see that exercising can be fun. Nintendo Wii Fit will be able to check your weight and progress. This is filled with fun activities, which will be able to exercise every part of your body and it will also help you maintain your physical fitness.

What’s more is that it also has yoga training, strength training, and even cardiovascular workout. The games here will not just improve your physical appearance, but it will also be able to improve your overall well-being.

This game will make your workouts more enjoyable and everybody in your family can really join in on the fun. This is a great way to promote health and wellness for the entire family as well as your friends.

Everybody knows that working out can be boring and it can also be hard. However, if you play with Nintendo Wii Fit, you will find that working out is not hard, but it will also be a lot of fun. What’s more is that it can be a fun activity that the entire family can do and at the same time, promote good health and better quality of life for everyone.

The great thing about the Wii Fit is that it teaches you the proper exercise methods. It will also plan your exercise regimen as well as record your progress. All in all, it basically acts as your personal fitness trainer.

In order for you to really take advantage of the Wii Fit game, all you need to do is position yourself on the balance board. This board will identify your body’s motion as well as your weight allocation. The data will then be relayed on the TV screen and the Wii Fit will be able to provide you with exercise options.

The exercises provided by the Wii Fit will be made on a more personal level. As you improve your overall health, the exercises will become more difficult and more intensive.

The Nintendo Wii Fit was primarily created to become a kind of fitness and learning system. However, a lot of people have stated that this also provided them enjoyment and fun and also an activity that the whole family can do.

So, if you think exercise is boring and you can’t seem to find time to go to the gym, you may want to get the Nintendo Wii Fit. With this video game, you will see that exercising can be a lot of fun and effective at the same time.

Quilts from Art Auctions

I’ve been traveling throughout California attending art auctions looking for unique quilts. I have had a lot of success. I have found so many quilts that you could tell were filled with thousands of hours of careful planning and stitching.

I was attending at art auction in Orange and found a wonderful quilt. The quilt was from the Civil War era and was made in the design of Blazing Stars. There was a wonderful appliqued red and green swag-like border. The center of the quilt has a feathered heart hand quilted.

The art auction that I went to in San Bruno had a fabulous quilt that was made in the 1860s. The quilt was hand appliqued using cheddar, red and green cotton solid fabrics. The background was white and the border has a meandering flowering vine. It was truly special.

I found a great quilt that was made in 1894 while I was at an art auction in Rancho Cucamonga. The style of the quilt was really fun. It was called a Victorian Crazy Quilt. There was so much elaborate hand embroidery over every seam and within the blocks, it was magnificent.

I was on vacation in Napa and attended an art auction that had several really nice quilts. The one that I won was made in Lancaster, Pennsylvania and was completed in the 1870s. I like the design called Ocean Waves. The chain had earth green and chocolate brown triangles that were pieced with exceedingly fine skill and precision. The border and background color was warm, cadmium orange.

The quilt I found at an art auction in Paradise was an 1840′s thin, cotton Quaker quilt, which measures 108″ x 88″ and had 10 stitches per inch. It was a Quaker cotton wedding quilt. The top border, near the pillows, had a blue print and each side and the bottom had wide borders with North Carolina Quilt blocks in each corner. There were two rows of North Carolina Lilies in the center, and one row on each side facing outward.

The quilt made its way into the art auction because someone made the decision to sell some of the great historic heirlooms that were passed down through her family to her. I was very fortunate to acquire this heirloom that had passed through the many generations of Quaker families. Now I own one of the great Pennsylvania Quaker masterpieces.

Log cabin quilts are a design that I have always liked. My grandmother made a quilt using this design for me when I was twelve. I found one made in a similar fashion at an art auction Los Gatos. The quilt was made in the 1870s and was made by Mennonites.

I was lucky to find the art auction, it was difficult to find. The quilt is just fantastic. The light and dark design of this quilt has a red center on one side with two green bars, two cinnamon bars and two blue bars and then two red bars and on the other side of the red square in the center are two yellows, two black and white stripe, two lovely Lancaster blue bars, and two peppermint stripe bars.

There was an art auction in Huntington Beach that advertised quilts and I was really happy with the pieces that I found there. The quilt that I bought had a pictorial motif, like an album quilt, with a lot of interesting designs. Each block was quite different and special.

What is Social Networking?

Social networking, we have all likely heard of it before, but not everyone knows what it means? If you were asked to define what social networking was, would you be able to give an accurate definition. Unfortunately, most individuals cannot, even though it is likely that they participate in some form of social networking, especially online.

Social networking is defined as the grouping of individuals together into to specific groups, often like a small community or a neighborhood. Although social networking is possible in person, especially in schools or in the workplace, it is most popular online. This is because unlike most high schools, colleges, or workplaces, the internet is filled with millions, if not more, of individuals who are looking to meet other internet users and develop friendships.

When it comes to social networking online, websites are used. These websites are known as social networking websites. Social networking websites are, in a way, like an online community of internet users. Depending on the social networking website in question, many of these online community members share a common bond, whether that bond be hobbies, religion, or politics. Once you are granted access to a social networking website you can begin to socialize. This socialization may include reading the profiles or profile pages of other members or even contacting them.

The friends that you can make are just one of the many benefits to social networking online. Another one of those benefits includes diversity. Unlike in most schools or workplaces, the internet gives individuals, from all around the world, access to social networking sties. This means that although you are in the United States, you could develop an online friendship with someone in Japan. Not only will you make a new friend, you but may also learn a thing or two about a new culture.

As previously mentioned, social networking often involves grouping specific individuals or organizations together. While there are a number of social networking websites that focus on particular internets, there are others that do not. These websites are often deemed traditional social networking websites. These types of websites typically have an open membership. This means that anyone can become a member, no matter what their hobbies, beliefs, or views are. However, once you are inside this online community, you can begin to create your own network of friends; thus eliminating others that do not meet your criteria.

If networking on the internet sounds like something you would be interested in, you are encouraged to learn more about it, such as the dangers of social networking. These dangers often involve online predators or individuals who claim to be someone that they are not. Although danger does exist with networking online, it also exists with networking out in the real world. As when you are meeting friends at a bar, school, or work, you are advised to proceed with caution online. By being aware of your surroundings and who you are talking to, you should be able safely enjoying social networking online.
Once you have learned everything that you feel you need to learn, about social networking online, you can begin to search for networking communities to join. This can easily be done by performing a standard internet search. Your search will likely return a number of results, including MySpace, FriendWise, FriendFinder, Yahoo! 360, Facebook, Orkut, and Classmates.

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Reshape your lifestyle!-the natural remedy to counteract snoring

Approximately, 45% of the American population snores. A snoring person may not awaken the whole world, but surely enough, he can contribute to the alarming numbers of troubled couples. For this reason, snoring could be counted as one of the factors of society disorder. And if snoring alone cannot be resolved, how much more are the wrecked marriages due to partners not sharing a room?

It may sound overstated but it’s true that bed partners move out of their room because of the unwanted noise when sleeping. The consequences are not as simple as they may sound. Aside from the effects to the relationships and society, snoring can also be a symptom of a severe disease. Often, this is a sign of the sleeping disorder called “obstructive sleep apnea”. Apnea disease consumes the person by reducing the flow of oxygen to the brain, by increasing the blood pressure and worse, it can result to sudden death.

Snoring occurs because of the obstruction in the airways. When this happens, the muscles responsible for respiration had to work harder in order to deliver the oxygen to the lungs and the carbon dioxide out of the body. As people age, muscles and tissues in the body deteriorate such that they are easily strained. This defines the proportionality of the age to the severity of snoring. Tensed muscles and jaw decrease the area of the airway resulting to the annoying sound. If the area is clear, the flow of the air is easy and there would be no sleeping noise such as snoring.

So how can snoring be naturally treated? A simple answer but quite complicated action is the solution-reshaping the lifestyle.

This is spelled out as proper diet, clean living, avoiding cigarettes and minimizing the intake of alcohol. Obviously, toxins should be taken out of the body and “too much” of anything should be avoided.

Specifically, excess weight contributes to snoring since the fats accumulated in at the back of the mouth serve as hindrance. Thus, a well nourished diet should be followed to keep your weight within the range of being healthy. In two to three hours before going to bed, eating should already be avoided. Certain fatty foods should be kept away such as those which enhance mucous production. In effect, these foods can result to severe snoring.

Part of the toxins that we put into our bodies is drugs. Medications must be necessary for they relieve some illnesses, but as much as possible, they must be avoided. Almost every drug leaves side effects to the patient making him feel not too well at all. Distinctively, sedatives are not advisable because they can worsen or cause snoring.

Enough exercise should be a part of every day. It tones the body and amplifies the spirit. Exercise stretches and contracts the muscles making them flexible.

Good sleeping habits should also be established. Sleeping by your side will prevent you from snoring. Also, avoid elevating your head with the use of pillows.

Following these steps can heal yourself from snoring and other health related problems. The only hard part is that it requires so much self discipline. But once you had started them out, making them a habit is no sweat. A good system of living will not only cure your health troubles, more so, your relationship with others.

Ways to Handle Sleep Apnea Conditions

If you have no trouble sleeping, you must consider yourself lucky. It will help you a lot in coping with various conditions and tasks that you have to face each day. You will feel the negative effects of lack of sleep, especially if you need to handle certain things with alert body and mind. Even animals need to get enough rest and full hours of sleep to keep their body fit. But there are certain conditions that you may not be aware about, which interfere with your healthy sleep patterns, one of which is known as sleep apnea.

Apnea is a Greek word that literally means to breathe. So when you have this sleep disorder, as you lay to rest, you may not notice that your airway is blocked that is why your breathing is halted. As this occurs, your brain will help you cope by going into a defensive mode. Your brain automatically forces you to breathe by waking you up.

How do you know that someone has this? The more obvious observation can be through the way they snore. You will hear more of a grunt than a snore actually because the person is gasping for air that is why they are making such noise. The blockage is there as long as you are still suffering from the disorder. This is why there will be a constant cycle of sleeping then waking up throughout the night.

Tireless Nights

If you are not worried about this condition, you will do so as time goes by. You may think that this is not alarming because at least, you still can sleep even though you are often being awakened. But the fact is that this is not healthy. You are not only losing hours of sleep but you are not reaching the most important part of this activity. There are five stages of sleep and among these, the most important part is the REM. REM stands for Rapid Eye Movement and this is deepest stage and gives you the feeling of becoming refreshed and well-rested. If you have the disorder, you will never reach such stage.

Aside from losing quality sleep each night, there are more serious problems that people who are suffering from the disorder face each time they go to sleep. Because you cannot breathe easily and regularly as you are sleeping, you lack the needed oxygen that you body has to be supplied with all the time. This can lead to more serious health problems like high blood pressure and heart disorders. If you already have problems with high blood and anything with regards to your heart, this certain sleeping disorder makes the matter worse and may lead to even more difficult problems if you will not act on it as soon as possible.

The Right Actions

The first thing that you need to do to help yourself is to accept that there is a problem. After that, you have to take the necessary actions to alleviate the condition. Here are some recommendations that you can follow in this regard.

1. If you are overweight, it is high time to lose those excess pounds and be fit. You have to know that most people with this disorder are overweight.

2. You can ask for the available dental services that can help you solve the dilemma. You just have to go to the right professional for this action.

3. You can also choose surgery to eliminate the problem of sleep apnea permanently.

Reserve Your Own PlayStation 3 before It Runs Out

Today, playing with gaming consoles is one of the most popular forms of entertainment. The fact that the latest gaming consoles are extremely fun and realistic to play with and full of different popular gaming titles, many people, young and old alike, are now getting into the game with popular gaming consoles that are available and being sold in the market.

One of the most popular manufacturers of gaming consoles is Sony. With the development of the PlayStation, Sony changed the way people play video games today. Integrated with stunning and realistic sound and graphics technology, the PlayStation gaming console have taken the world by storm and it is also considered as one of the most popular gaming console ever released in the market today.

Sony then developed and released the widely anticipated PlayStation 2 in the year 2000. This too was eagerly awaited that many people made reservations even before the game was officially released in the market. The PlayStation 2 was very successful that this gaming console developed by Sony was flying out of the shelves in PlayStation 2 retail outlets all over the world.

Even today, many people are still purchasing the PlayStation and PlayStation 2 gaming console because of its integrated features and state-of-the-art gaming technology that are not found on other gaming consoles available in the market today. Because PlayStation and PlayStation 2 is provided with the best and latest technology in gaming consoles and because of its sleek and « cool » design, PlayStation and PlayStation 2 gaming consoles are one of the hottest selling gaming consoles in the world.

Today, people are now anticipating another gaming console that Sony unveiled last March 2005. Sony named this gaming console as PlayStation 3 and is integrated with the latest technology in the gaming console world. Sony has integrated different features that are not found on other gaming consoles that they promise to deliver quality entertainment on every home in the world.

With the latest in graphics and sound technology, Sony PlayStation 3 promises to deliver quality gaming experience that will leave you glued to your seat for hours playing your favorite PlayStation 3 gaming title.

The fact that PlayStation 3 is widely anticipated all over the world will give you the perception of an early Christmas shopping rush and fast-emptying PlayStation 3 store shelves. You can even expect that the nearest PlayStation 3 dealer in your area will run out of PlayStation 3 stocks the day the console is delivered.

If you purchased PlayStation 2 upon its release, you will know what to expect when Sony PlayStation 3 is officially released on the market. So, in order to avoid getting frustrated and exert a lot of effort for a PlayStation 3 gaming console, you should make reservations with the nearest PlayStation 3 dealers in your area.

By reserving your own PlayStation 3, you will be assured of ownership of this one-of-a-kind gaming console. You will no longer join the early Christmas shopping rush for PlayStation 3 and you will also avoid getting frustrated of running out of PlayStation 3 to buy in your nearest PlayStation 3 dealers.

So, if you want to own a PlayStation 3, you better reserve your own PlayStation 3 today. With the upcoming release of the PlayStation 3 in November 2006 in Japan, United States and Canada, and March 2007 in Europe and Australasia, making reservations for PlayStation 3 is definitely a must unless you want to wait a long time for new stocks to arrive.

Understanding Re-Financing

Understanding the process of re-financing can be quite dizzying. Homeowners who are considering re-financing might initially be overwhelmed by the number of options available to them. However, after taking some time to educate themselves about the process, they will likely find the process is not nearly as daunting as they had imagined. This article will discuss some of the options available to those interested in re-financing as well as some of the important factors to consider in order to determine whether or not refinancing is worthwhile.

Consider the Options

Homeowners have quite a few options available to them when they are considering the possibility of re-financing their home. The most significant decision is the type of loan they will choose. Fixed rate mortgages and adjustable rate mortgages (ARMs) are the two main types of mortgages the homeowners will likely encounter. Additionally there are hybrid loan options available.

As the name implies, a fixed rate mortgage is one in which the interest rate remains constant throughout the duration of the loan period. This is an especially favorable type of loan when the homeowner has credit which is sufficient enough to lock in a low interest rate.

ARMs are mortgages where the interest rate varies during the course of the loan period. The interest rate is usually tied to an index such as the prime index and is subject to rises and falls in accordance with this index. This is considered a riskier type of loan and is therefore often offered to homeowners who have less favorable credit scores.

Although ARMs are considered somewhat risky there is usually a certain degree of protection written into the loan agreement. This may come in the form of a clause which limits the amount the interest rate can increase, in terms of percentage points, over a fixed period of time. This can protect the homeowner from sharp increases in the interest rates which would otherwise considerably raise the amount of their monthly payments.

Hybrid loans are mortgages which combine a fixed element with an adjustable element. An example of this type of loan is a situation where the lender may offer a fixed interest rate for the first five years of the loan and a variable interest rate for the remainder of the loan. Lenders typically offer a lower introductory interest rate for the fixed period to make the mortgage seem more enticing.

Consider the Closing Costs

The closing costs associated with re-financing should be carefully considered when deciding whether or not to re-finance the home. This is significant because when homeowners re-finance their home they are often subject to many of the same closing costs as when they originally purchased the home. These costs may include, but are not limited to appraisal fees, application fees, loan origination fees and a host of other expenses. These costs can be quite significant. The closing costs will be significant when the homeowner considers the overall savings associated with re-financing.

Consider the Overall Savings

When deciding whether or not to re-finance, the overall savings is one factor the homeowners should carefully consider. This is important because re-financing is typically not considered worthwhile unless it results in a financial savings. Although some homeowners refinance to lower monthly costs and are not concerned with the overall picture, most homeowners consider whether or not they will be saving money by refinancing.

The amount of money the homeowner will save when re-financing is largely dependent on the new interest rate in relation to the old interest rate. Other factors come into play such as the remaining balance of the existing loan as well as the amount of time the homeowner intends to stay in the home before selling the property. It is important to note that the amount of money saved by negotiating a lower interest rate is not equal to the entire savings. The homeowner must determine the closing costs associated with re-financing and subtract this sum from the potential savings. A negative number would indicate the new interest rate is not low enough to offset the closing costs. Conversely a positive number indicates an overall savings. With this information the homeowner can decide whether or not he wishes to re-finance.

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