Ecology

Waste Management Through Waste Minimization

Today’s waste management has developed several ways of waste disposal methods in trying to contain the ever-growing size of civilization’s refuse materials. Waste management through minimization of waste materials shows great promise.

This is because in waste minimization, control and management would go back to the waste producers themselves (individual persons, companies, manufacturers, factories) and not only on the waste materials.

Minimization

Traditionally, waste management processes the waste material after it had been created. From there, other waste management systems take place: re-use, recycling, composting, incineration, energy conversion, etc.

Waste minimization takes the process one step further back. It actually is one system that includes the process itself and the policy of simply reducing the amount of waste generated to the barest minimum by the primary producer itself – a single person or a company.

Waste sources

The main sources of waste vary from country to country. In developed countries in Europe, most waste comes from the manufacturing industry, agriculture, construction and demolition industries. In developing or under-developed countries, a big part of waste comes from the households and society at large.

Waste minimization processes

The following are some of the waste minimization processes at work these days.

- Both waste minimization and resource maximization of products can begin at the design stage. A product’s number of components can be reduced to make it easier to take apart for repairs or recycling. At the design stage, a product may be steered away from using toxic materials, or reduce its volume.

- Minimization of waste and maximization of resources again go hand-in-hand in optimizing the use of raw materials. Patterns for a dress can be cut in such a way that there is a minimum of unused portions in the clothing materials.

- Another way is the reuse of scrapped materials back into the production process. In industries like paper manufacture, damaged rolls and other scraps are returned and incorporated again to the paper-making process. In plastics manufacture, cut-offs and other scraps are re-incorporated into new products.

- This is for products specifically designed for its intended use. Packaging materials will be a waste if for reasons of, say cost-cutting, the quality is reduced and the food it is intended to protect is spoiled instead.

- Through improved quality control and monitoring, the number of product rejects is kept to a minimum. Increasing inspection frequency and the number of inspection points via automated and continuous monitoring equipments is now integrated into existing systems.

- Shipping raw materials directly to the places of manufacture reduces accidents, less protective wrappings and enclosures and other safety measures and devices designed for long circuitous handling and shipment.

Benefits and other considerations

Waste minimization is related to the efforts of minimizing the use of resources and energy by way of fewer materials and efficient designs, for instance.

This also entails thorough knowledge of the production process, continuous tracking of the material’s life cycle from cradle (extraction/creation) to grave (waste). This is feasible in large manufacturing industries starting from the plants to the stores all the way to the consumer.

Today, waste management is employing waste minimization as yet another reliable ammunition in the fight against pollution and environmental hazards in the complex business of waste disposal and management.

Wind and Solar Power

Going back to the basics is the trend these days. Many people are now aware of the many problems faced by the world which includes pollution, depletion of natural resources, increasing population, and many others. With so many problems to deal with, people don’t know where to start. You don’t have to be a hero to help save the world and address its many problems. Why not contribute in your own little way by using solar power and wind power?

Sunlight and air can be converted into energy though solar and wind power. A solar power system collects sunlight which can directly heat homes or it can convert the heat into usable electricity and store them in batteries. Wind energy can also create usable electricity or the mechanical energy can also be used directly.

There are advantages of using solar and wind power. After the initial expenses for the installation of the systems, you can enjoy free energy for many years. Most of the power systems last for approximately twenty years and requires little maintenance. As long as the systems are cleaned once in a while, it will surely work efficiently. Solar and wind power are both pollution free and does not emit greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Solar panels and wind turbines require little maintenance. Some people are concerned about wasting land to install wind turbines but you can still use the land for planting crops and for grazing animals.

According to researchers, the efficiency of these systems relies on the environmental elements. Germany and Japan are leading the way to the improvement of solar energy despite the fact that these countries get very little sunshine in a year. On the other hand, wind turbines are too noisy and unsightly. Turbine blades cause the noise and the huge structure can ruin any landscape.

To produce significant energy, you will need a lot of solar panels or reflectors and turbines. Size is a vital consideration for producing the needed energy. Have you ever been into remote areas? You can use solar power and wind power to generate the needed electricity. During daytime, you can depend on solar power to provide your electric needs and at night, you can use the wind turbines.

Solar power systems and wind turbines are not very difficult to install. In fact, there are now DIY kits that can be readily purchased locally and in online stores. You will just follow the guided instructions and get the necessary materials. The systems can be installed over the weekend. For those who live in the city, you can take advantage of the tax incentives, financial options, rebates, loans, and grants offered by the government. That way, you can have the system installed at a very affordable cost. In the case of wind turbines, you will need a lot of space. There are now turbines that produce less or no noise at all which are excellent for homes with close neighbors.

The decision to use solar power or wind power is a matter of personal choice that is usually affected by certain factors like money (investment), space, and energy requirements. Just imagine making a one-time investment and after that you can already enjoy unlimited and free supply of electricity. Regular inspection can ensure that the systems are working efficiently.

The Marine Mammals

Studying marine mammals may be one of the most interesting parts in a marine biologist’s profession. There are 3 main orders that you need to know about. Each category has its own unique mechanism, feeding pattern and characteristics. These animals tend to live in different places as well, others in groups and the rest in families or alone. Once you become familiar with their lifestyle and features, you get to appreciate the species more.

Cetacea Order

The whole lifecycle of the order Cetacea is aquatic. There are a couple of sub-orders founded ont he feeding mechanism – Odonticeti and Mysticeti. The sub-order Mysticeti includes baleen whales, blue whales, minke whales, grey whales and right whales. The whales feature mechanisms to boost the success feeding.

The sub-order Odonticeti includes animals like killer whales, dolphins, toothed whales and porpoises. River and coastal species reside in small home ranges if they are offshore. Others prefer warm equatorial waters, while the rest are located in every ocean like the bottle-nosed dolphins and killer whales. Some animals like big baleen whales move from the tropics for winter breeding to high latitudes for summer feeding. Animals propel themselves using the broad and boneless tail flukes. They also shed skin and exude oil as much as 12 times per day to reduce friction.

Pinnipedia Order

These animals adapt to the environment through a variety of processes. Heat conservation is done and get a low SA/V ratio and develop insulation through their hair and blubber. All the animals moult, after breeding in the summer while the others should stay out of water until everything is done.

The respiration is done by exhaling before the deep dives. They have relatively high concentrations of haemoglobin and myoglobin. The heart of the animals drop during deep dives and the blood is limited to the heart and brain. Dives can be as deep as 1700m, lasting anywhere between 80 to 160 hours.

Sirenia Order

Sirenians are sought mainly for their hide, oil and meat. They spend their entire lives in the water and are the only aquatic animals labeled as herbivores. The flat tail propels itself via paddles. These can walk at the benthic or move backwards. Locomotion is usually slow but they can also burst at around 13 knots. Sirenians inhale before they dive, just like whales.
When they breathe, they can swap about 90% of lung volume.

Manatees can see very clearly underwater, while taste and smell are retained. These touch when they greet each other and lead to chirps, between calf and mother. Dugongs can live for as long as 70 years but fecundity is rather low. The animals reach puberty at 10 years old and produce only 1 calf every 5 years. Their population has to be protected to maintain the ability to recover from environmental stress and hunting.

Interacting with Man

All animals have interactions with man, although sirenians are the most widely known to be friendly towards humans. Fishing nets and fishing lines tend to be a problem for most of these animals.

Waste Management System In Businesses

In businesses, waste management is believed to be at the lowest part of the priority list, if at all it is a priority. But if you want your business to make an impact on the society and on the environment specifically, waste management should be part of your business priorities. In its own capacity, waste management system in businesses boosts profile, integrity, and profits.

Benefits of waste management system
Aside from having an orderly working environment, an active waste management system generates other benefits. One: Your business will promote environmental and social responsiveness and will therefore create a better image. Some companies are more interested working with businesses that are environmental advocates, and such businesses are generally offered various opportunities. Two: A waste management system boosts your employees’ morale.

It is given that employment benefits up the employees’ mood and morale, but environmental and social awareness does so even more. In an employee’s mind, environmental and social responsiveness speaks of the company’s integrity. Three: There will be savings and profits from establishing a waste management system. You can save and generate income by selling your old office tools or have the broken items repaired instead of throwing them away and buying new ones. Also, by having waste management policies, you are decreasing your chances of incurring law violations and therefore fines.

Waste reduction: A practical way of managing wastes
Businesses are generally huge waste generators, but you can contribute to waste management on a larger scale by incorporating waste reduction in your waste management policies. In essence, waste reduction efforts focus on the prevention of creating new waste by reusing and recycling materials. There are several ways to reduce waste in the office setting, and here are some of them:

1. Reduce the use of paper. If, for instance, you issue double invoice, you can probably try to settle with just one. You can also ask everyone in the office to print and write on the two sides of papers. Businesses use a lot of papers in a day, and if they are reused, there will be a considerable decrease in the amount of papers that are sent to landfills or incinerators. You can also cut down on your paper expenses.

2. Find new use for potential waste materials. The plastic water bottle can probably work as a vase. The cardboard can probably be some form of a décor. The thing is, before you label something as a trash, consider first if there is another use for it.

3. Repair office equipment, tool, or appliance. If a certain item, however, is beyond repair, you can dismantle it and get the parts that you can still use, recycle, or sell.

As you look around your office, you can come up with more ideas in waste management. For them to be more relevant, you can involve your staff and ask for their own ideas. After all, waste management system in businesses is not the sole endeavor of the employer; it should be a team effort.

What to Expect from Solar Power for Homes

Years ago, solar power was used mostly for magnifying glasses and calculators. Now, it is already possible to use solar power for homes. The energy of the sun is widely available and scientists are improving solar power systems year after year. Electricity is a necessity and life will be quite hard without it. However, the fossil fuels are depleting and electricity is expensive. The use of fossil fuels also causes damage to the Earth, thereby causing global warming and other environmental problems.

Solar power for homes is a renewable and much better energy source. Many homeowners are going green these days because they want to save money and the environment. Despite the encouragement of the government and other organizations, only 1% of the total homeowners use solar power. If you’re in the US, why don’t you visit California? You can find many solar powered homes in California.

The energy of the sun can be used in different ways to create electricity. A very good example is the use of solar generators. The generator is powered with the use of mirrors that focus and reflect sunlight. When heat is created, the generator will be powered. Photovoltaic cells are also quite popular and these are available in solar panel DIY kits. The panels are usually mounted on rooftops. When sunlight hits the photovoltaic cells, electrical charge is created which in turn power homes and offices. You can purchase the kits from online stores or even in your local area. Just shop around for the best and highly effective panel kits; these kits already include guided instructions so that you can develop a homemade solar panel.

Ordinary homeowners still find solar power too expensive and that’s the main reason why many people still opt for conventional electricity. With the modern technology of today, scientists and researchers are looking for cost effective ways to offer solar power to the public. Did you know that you can also store the energy that comes from sunlight? This is true and so you can still use solar power even when there’s no sunlight. So whether it’s nighttime or it’s raining, you can use renewable and clean energy.

Solar cookers, thermal systems, and many others are excellent alternatives but you need to know how to use them effectively. The very first step that you need to take is to determine your monthly electrical consumption. You can do this by checking your electricity bills and get the average monthly usage. You also need to consider the weather or climate in your area. After determining your electric consumption, you can now decide on the appropriate inverter. A bigger inverter can accommodate expansion in the future. For people with limited resources or budget, you can start with the simplest projects like outdoor lights and garden features. Even if you use smaller solar panels, you can still cut down your electrical bills by 50%-80%.

Try to have realistic expectations when using solar power. You can’t give up conventional electricity completely but if you can use it together with solar power, you can save a lot of money in the long run. Make this one-time investment and enjoy lasting benefits in the coming months and years. Solar power for homes is an excellent investment and you too can enjoy a greener and clean lifestyle.

The Marine Biology Course

Marine biology is a branch of science which can also break down into several other specializations. Before you pick the course, make sure that you have the right mindset and skills to go through everything. You may be surprised to know that some aspects of the course can actually be boring and time-consuming. Here are some more guidelines on what you can expect from the course and how well you can cope with the requirements.

The Courses

Universities usually offer anywhere from 1 to 5 marine biology courses. All courses usually have the same requirements for students to enter and are very closely integrated. All courses share several basic modules. However, there are also important differences, so it is an excellent idea to view the course descriptions and modules first before finalizing your choice. The Marine biology course will delve on the biology of the organisms residing in the sea, taking into consideration the chemical and physical processes in the oceans and habitats. Marine Biology & Coastal Ecology involves a cross-system approach, wherein interactions and marine ecosystems take center stage.

Other Focuses

The Marine Biology & Oceanography course focuses more on integrating biological knowledge, with some inclusions on ocean processes. You will most likely cover topics like ocean biogeochemistry and physical processes together with the ecology and biology of marine life. One of the basic ways wherein the various ethos of the courses is developed is during the second year field course and methods modules. Join a number of course preview sessions to grab the chance to talk to students and staff regarding the various courses.

On Certain Changes

Once you find out more about the Marine Biology course, you may want to change your application. It is usually not a problem to transfer between 3 marine courses at Plymouth. In most cases, applicants will change their mind after joining the course preview day. Just inform the school during preview day or by writing a letter or email then amend the UCAS entry. Schools usually have a set number of places on each course to help plan for field courses and practical work. Even though the first year of every course is the same and theoretically possible to change, there might only be a very limited number of places.

The Fieldwork

The fieldwork can vary between courses. Marine Biology, Marine Biology & Coastal Ecology and Marine Biology & Oceanography typically have the same field course during the first year. The second year field course has a new emphasis. One course is located in a different place, focusing more on the experimental approach to study habitats in shallow water.

Another is found in a different location and focuses on the different kinds of flora and fauna in the region. The Marine Biology & Oceanography is done in a new location, involving boat work on a research vessel. Follow up analysis in the lab may be done. You may be provided with some pamphlets and manuals to exactly determine what you should expect during fieldwork.

Waste Management: Start Composting

Waste management is all about waste hierarchy or the 3 Rs: reduce, reuse and recycle. There are too much waste being produced around the world, that different organizations and countries are being alarmed. Improper waste management could cause chemical spill, gaseous pollutants and pests.

But why compost? Landfills and incarceration could be a way to get rid of yard waste, but why bother with composting? Even though there are government agencies and private companies that collect wastes from homes and industries, landfills and incinerators are not always the best options.

Putting decomposing materials in landfills would be a waste of space and unnecessary. Yard wastes in landfill produce methane gas, a greenhouse gas that has the potential to explode. For example in Asia, Latin America and Africa, 40 % of methane emissions or about 37 million metric tons come from landfills.

Incineration or burning is also not a great option. It could result to air pollution, burning yard leaves are even said to have an effect on people’s breathing and even increase the risk of asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and allergies. In the United States, there are some states that have implemented a ban on burning leaves and other yard wastes. Environmental problems in Asia or any part of globe could really affect other parts of the globe.

To reduce wastes being produced, government agencies are encouraging home owners to do composting at home. For example, in the United States, Illinois are not collecting any yard wastes. This regulation is to encourage homeowners to recycle and start composting.

Organic materials can be used as fertilizers to enrich the soil, this is used as composting. With composting organic materials are sued like yard trimmings, food wastes and animal wastes or manure. Some would even add bulking agents like wood chips that would hasten the breakdown of organic materials.

What is so good about composting? Here are some composting benefits:

- The use compost is proved to be better is preventing plant diseases and pests. Using organic materials to enrich the soil is definitely better than using chemical fertilizers. Using chemical fertilizers could have some effects on crops which could have an effect on the consumer’s health.

- The use of organic fertilizers could also promote higher crop yield and effectively resolve soil problems after being dumped by hazardous wastes. They can effectively remove oil, grease and heavy metals caused by stormwater runoff.

- They are also proven to be more cost efficient compared with other pollution resolution technologies.

Farmers find compost to be very important with their crops and their yield. Landscapers also use compost for areas that they are landscaping like golf courses and athletic fields. They are also great for parks, median strips and other recreational areas. Homeowners also find compost great for their backyards and vegetable patches at home.

Compost as waste management is a great way to help the environment and reduce wastes. They also offer economic benefits since they are low-cost alternatives compared to other soil amendments. They are also a more cost-efficient method of revamping or remediating contaminated soil by different pollutants.

The Cost of Solar Power Installation

Many years ago, it would have been impossible to use solar power at home because the installation cost was too expensive. However, with the advancements in technology, households and offices can now make use of solar power because the solar power system kits are more affordable. Homes that have solar power systems can expect added market value and aside from that, you can expect a significant decrease in your electric bills.

How much is the cost for installing a solar power system? If you live in the US, you can take advantage of the financial incentives offered by the government to make the installation cost more affordable.

Before you finally decide to use a solar power system for your home, you need to calculate your electrical needs. Determine the kWh that your home consumes in a month and in a year. You can find such info on the monthly utility bill. Study the bills so that you will now which months have the greatest consumption and the months with the least consumption.

New homeowners can compute their electricity consumption by checking your electrical appliances. Just estimate the load based on your appliances, lights, and other things that consume electricity.

Electrically bills are showing a continuous upward trend and so many people are now complaining about their monthly bills. A very good answer is solar power. Where do you live? The place where the home or establishment is situated is a primary consideration. In the US, you can install the solar power system in any of the states. If you can find solar contractors locally, you can seek their help to determine the appropriate size of the system.

1-5 kW of solar power system is already enough to meet your home’s electricity needs. You don’t need to cut off your existing power supply in order to utilize solar power. You can simply use the photovoltaic systems as a supplement. This step alone can already reduce your monthly bills. Do you have enough space for the photovoltaic system? For every square foot, you can already yield 10 watts; you can start your computation from there.

Here’s how you can compute the total cost: the retail price of the system plus the cost of building permits, less federal tax credit of $2,000 and the local or state rebates/tax credit, less other incentives equals to your net investment. You can shop around for the best and most suitable solar power system in the market. If you live in California, it will be easier to find local sellers of solar power systems because many homes in the city are already solar powered. For those living in other places, it would be easier to shop online. There are lots of online stores that offer photovoltaic systems but try to stick with the reputable and established manufacturers that offer 10-15 years of warranty.

Instead of paying for expensive monthly utility bills, why not invest in solar power systems? The total cost will depend on the size of the system, your location, and other related factors. Inquire at a local agency about the incentives offered by your state so that you can also save money. It’s a wise decision to invest in photovoltaic systems because you’ll benefit greatly in the succeeding years. Shop around now and determine your available options.

The Marine Biologist

There are several features and roles that marine biologists have to assume, depending on their level of experience and expertise. You may be assigned to research different species depending on your location and assignment. You should also know the basic qualifications to make it as a marine biologist. You can be given tasks, based on your current degree.

On Research

If you intend to do research as a marine biologist, you need to finish college with a Bachelor of Science degree (4 years) at the very least, preferably from a known university offering specialization in marine sciences. Having this degree will allow you to work as a lab technician or on a ship running samples. You may also be assigned as a scientist. It is recommended that you have good grades in high school too.

A bachelor’s degree is not actually enough qualification to permit you to work as a scientist wherein you do your own research. You will need to get a master’s degree at the very least, but given the current employment conditions, you will also need a PhD in Marine Biology, lasting 4 to 5 years. As soon as you finish the PhD, you will be required to spend 3 to 4 years more in positions referred to as post-doctoral fellow. You can be hired as a temporary contract position by a scientist to run a part of the research semi-independently. As soon as you complete the stage, you will be considered qualified enough to be hired by a government agency, university or private research group.

Things to Do

As a marine biologist, you need to perform an active research program which includes publishing the results in peer-reviewed journals. You are also expected to review documents from other existing researchers in your field. If you are currently employed in a university, you will be tasked to teach, as well as supervise the training of research students at the PhD and Master’s level. You will need to be an active member of the community, such as joining committees in the academic department. You may also be tasked to apply for research grants. Funds are highly needed to do research.

About the Course and Other Requirements

Marine Biology is usually a major course in many universities. You can also choose to specialize further by going for areas like benthic biology or living on the ocean bottom, ichthyology or fish studies, etc. It is important to have a very keen mind, as well as the ability to be meticulous and careful. A lot of research will need you to repeat the same work again and again. Majority of scientific research does not lead to awards. You have to be patient with the developments. You will need to have a lot of positive reinforcement to stick to the course for the long term.

Tips to Get In

Always aim for good grades to stay competitive and possibly get scholarships. Focus on your writing skills and train more in your maths and computer programs. You should always volunteer as an assistant if the opportunity comes up, since what you learned in university may not entirely be the same as the actual job you will be performing once you get out of school. You will adjust to the situation more as you get more experience.

Waste Management Career Opportunities

Waste management is all about pickup, transporting and disposing wastes coming from households, industries and other institutions. Waste management has become an industry on its own. There are companies that offer services and haul your junk away. There are different jobs that different waste management companies offer.

Different waste management businesses would offer jobs as salesmen, customer service representatives, drivers, pickup personnel and field waste characterization specialists. They are very important in completing the kind of waste management services that homeowners and industry owners need.

What exactly do each waste management staff do? Just like in any kind of business, sales personnel makes sure that company services would be able to reach target customers. Sales personnel can promote waste management services online, on foot or through mail. Companies should also ensure that there are customer service representatives that would be readily available to help customers. Big waste management service providers and companies would have a number of customer service reps that would handle complaints, service changes, and upgrades.

Mechanics, drivers and service pickup personnel are also indispensable in a waste management company. There is a need to maintain trucks and deal with repairs and inspections. Again, the number of mechanics, drivers and other personnel would depend on the scope and size of the company and its service area.

There are waste management specialists who ensure that the business is following regional, state and national laws. There are different regulations that would ensure that waste management businesses would dispose wastes properly and would not pose any dangers to the environment and the community.

Waste management jobs are not only available in waste management businesses. Institutions like hospitals, medical clinics, and pharmaceutical laboratories would employ a waste management officer. Waste management officers would organize and manage waste disposal. They would also be responsible in monitoring waste quantities and at times spearhead a project on reducing and recycling wastes.

Government agencies would also have waste management officers. In the United States about .75 tonnes of waste is generated by an average American every year. In a city, imagine how many tonnes of waste is generated every year? There is definitely a need for an officer to implement trainings and programmes about waste disposal in communities.

A waste management officer would also need to have knowledge in collating statistics and compiling reports that would be submitted to senior managers or government agencies. His task would also involve budget formulation and control for waste disposal. They would also have to deal with investigating any claims about illegal waste dumping. Part of their responsibilities is spearheading research and developing environmental technologies that would help in reducing wastes.

It can sometimes be difficult to find west management jobs, you could start looking jobs in different waste management websites. Online employment sites are great places to look for job opportunities. You could also start contacting the local waste management department and ask if there are any waste management positions available. You could ask about the hiring processes and the requirements that are needed for the position.