Ecology

What Is Waste Management?

Everyday activities—down from the mundane to the complicated—play a major part in waste production. It is estimated that people produce 4.3 pounds of daily waste individually, and if taken together, they can account for the heaps and tons of produced waste materials each year around the world. In the United States alone, an estimate of 208 millions tons of solid waste is produced every year. That excludes the liquid, gaseous, and other forms of waste materials, which are also considerably high in amount. As the global population booms, waste production is expected to increase in speed and measure, and unless proper waste management is practiced in households, companies, universities, industries, and practically everywhere, Earth will eventually turn into one big garbage planet, where pollution and waste-induced diseases are widespread.

Waste management is essentially the systematic handling of garbage. It involves the proper way of collection, transportation, and disposal of waste materials. Waste management has been a significant issue addressed in the modern and industrialized generation largely owing to the fact that more waste materials are produced today than during the early generations, a critical increase resulting from population explosion and industrial revolution.

While it seems to be a modern response to waste production, waste management is not at all a new practice. Records from all over the world showed that early people had a way of managing and regulating their garbage. One of the common ways of waste management before was digging pits to contain solid wastes. As the civilization progressed, waste management practices became more regulated. As far back as 500 BC, for instance, there were existing policies in Athens Greece that required people to dispose of their waste materials in areas at least one mile from city limits. In 1388, the English Parliament in England banned waste disposal into the water systems. And in 1885, the United States built its first incinerator.

Waste management methods and procedures have improved since then, with emphasis on their relevance to modernity and quantity of produced waste. Incineration, for instance, is still a common process of waste disposal. With the use of incinerators, waste materials are combusted and are converted to energy. This waste-to-energy benefit is proven helpful to many industries, although there have been environmental and health concerns over the creation and emission of dangerous pollutants and chemicals during the burning process.

Using landfills is also a common method of waste disposal. Landfills are basically a big piece of lot where truckloads of waste are gathered and buried. In some countries, using landfills is the most common way of waste disposal primarily because they are relatively cheap and don’t require intricate machineries. Since landfills can potentially attract vermin and emit dangerous landfill gas, landfills have to be well-designed and credibly managed.

Waste management is also targeting to minimize waste, an effort that eventually gave way to the global campaign to recycle. Recycling means reprocessing some or all parts of an item to make a new or completely different product. Scrap metals and papers are two of the most recycled materials today. To date, several people and organizations are committed to recycling, whose collaborated efforts are contributing to proper waste management.

Solar Energy – This Commodity is Not for Sale

If anything good came out during the recent increases of the fuel oil prices, it is that once again, there is a merry interest in alternative sources of energy. Even when pump prices has been decreasing like nothing we have seen before, the uproar created and the pain it did to business will have a good chance of sticking. The desire for alternative sources of energy is on the forefront and may it stay there for good – as it should.

Extracting oil from crops is a good idea; the downside is that food supplies could be dramatically reduced. Wind power is another excellent thing except for the many buts that wind power generation have.

If costs is the main objection to solar power generation that should be the least of worries.

The installation of solar panels is until today, considered a specialized job. Like any commodity in the market, when the demand is high but the supply is limited, the cost increase. As more and more homes clamor for alternative sources of energy, better technology and more labor is drawn to the job that market forces could take place and result into much lowered prices. This though is still in the future.

Today the reality is the instability and the unpredictability of pump prices. But even if it does provide stable and predictable price movement, solar energy is free and it is inexhaustible.

While the technology of tapping out this resource is not, homes that are solar powered are getting back dividends in terms of higher appraisal for their homes, confidence in not being surprised by power shortage and outage, not being dependent on the fluctuation in power prices and the definite advantage of having provided a better environment solution.

Today, the typical ways at tapping this resource usually are:

-Through a Heliostat – this are focusing collectors composed of mirrors that are aimed at the sun to collect the energy. The temperature that heliostats could provide reaches more that 4,000 degrees centigrade. This high temperature is sufficient for use even for furnaces.

-Through Flat Plate Collectors – employ a system of pipes. The water inside the pipes becomes heated and is ideal for heating purposes like schools, homes swimming pools, offices etc.

-Through Solar Distillation – instead of heat, this provides water. The mechanics is similar to the processes of plate collectors except that this is generally used to steam salt water. To do this, tanks and ducts are usually installed in surfaces that receive a good sun. Through the heat, the salt water turns into steam and when the steam condenses, the water is collected for regular use.

-Through photovoltaic Cells – These are the most common type of collecting solar energy characterized by solar panels installed in rooftops and other flat surfaces that there is a good sun, converting the power collected into electricity.

Unlike any products, whether refined or manufactured, the processing of solar energy do not need additional costs of energy to power it up. It is energy generating by itself. Except maybe for regular inspection and replacement of parts (when it employs a mechanical device), the tapping of solar energy is virtually maintenance free. Once installed, it could be used for as long as needed for the amount of energy, (depending on the capacity of the unit), which the owner requires.

Various Life Forms in the Ocean

Marine biology involves the study of different life forms in the ocean, both plant and animal. Scientists and individuals continue to show interest in the ocean since there are still so many things left undiscovered. Some parts of the saltwater environment remain unknown simply because human beings cannot access these readily. You have to know more about the hierarchy of the life forms and how each interact with each other and the environment.

Microscopic Beings

Microscopic life in the ocean is very diverse and is understood in the least sense by individuals. Viruses, for example, is rarely explored and considered. Phytoplankton’s function and role is understood better because of its vital position as the most numerous primary producers in the planet. Phytoplankton is grouped into cyanobacteria or blue or green algae or bacteria, diatoms, different kinds of algae like brown algae, red algae and green algae, euglenoids, cryptomonads, chlorophytes, dinoflagellates, prasinophytes and silicoflagellates.

Zooplankton is usually larger and may not be microscopic. Several protozoa are zooplankton, including radiolarians, dinoflagellates, foraminiferans and zooflagellates. Some of the beings are also phytoplankton, with the plant and animal type usually breaking down into very tiny organisms. Other zooplanktons can include arthropods, polychaetes, cnidarians, urochordates and annelids.

The Plants

There ocean has very diverse plant life. Microscopic photosynthetic algae provide a big portion of the photosynthetic output of the world compared to all the terrestrial forests. Majority of the niche occupied by sub plants on terrain are usually known as seaweeds that build kelp forests. The intertidal zone is an ideal place to find plant life in the ocean, where beach grass and mangroves may proliferate. These can function as habitat for other animals.

The Fishes

Fish has transformed several biological functions from other big organisms. Fish breathe by getting oxygen from the water through the gills. The fins function by stabilizing and propelling fish in the water. Some of the most popular fishes include clownfish, sardines, bottom fish, sharks, barracuda and ling cod. Fishes will thrive in different depths and parts of the ocean, depending on their need. Some will migrate to other regions depending on the current temperature, habitat and availability of food.

Reptiles, Birds and Mammals

There are many reptiles that live in the sea like sea snakes, saltwater crocodiles, sea turtles and marine iguanas. Majority of these reptiles have to come back to land to lay their eggs. Some of the extinct species like the ichthyosaurs transformed and no longer needs to return to land. Several seabirds are also present such as penguins, albatrosses and gulls. These spend most of their time in the ocean, while others prefer to stay inland.

There are mainly 5 kinds of marine mammals. The polar bear is considered a marine mammal since it greatly depends on the ocean. Cetaceans include toothed whales like porpoises and the sperm whale. The sea otter is part of the Family Mustelidae. Sirenians include the sea cow, manatee and dugong. Seals, walruses and sea lions are grouped as pinnipeds.

What Is Solid Waste Management?

By definition, solid waste is a waste material that is composed of less than 70% water. It can be anything from kitchen waste to electrical waste. A huge part of produced waste is made up of solid waste. In fact, according to statistics, each person produces around four pounds of solid waste everyday. This enormous production has greatly concerned a lot of people primarily because if not managed well, solid waste will worsen pollution, spread diseases, and cause danger to human health and other living species. For this reason, the call to practice solid waste management has become more persistent over the years.

Solid waste management is the proper monitoring, sorting, transportation, and disposal of solid waste. In modern society, solid waste management efforts are backed up by different legislations and campaigns. For instance, collection programs, in which waste management companies pick up solid waste from households, are instituted by local governments and carried out in different communities. In places where there are no collection programs, residents are required to drop off their solid waste at locally established waste facilities.

But because a considerable percentage of solid waste comes from other sources than households, trash bins are scattered in areas with high passerby traffic such as parks and streets, to name a few. Industrial waste, on the other hand, is usually managed by the generators themselves. They usually have their own facilities for treatment and disposal of waste.

Once collected, a great bulk of solid waste goes to incinerators and landfills. These disposal methods, however, have negative impact on the environment, thus a significant percentage of solid waste is turned over to different treatment facilities. Recyclable solid waste, which often includes scrap metals, papers, glass, and bottles, undergo certain processes to make new products. To encourage people to recycle, recycle bins are usually made available in many parts of communities. Biodegradable or organic waste materials, on the other hand, are made into compost. Composting in some areas is mandated by legislation and in such communities, compost bins are provided to residents. Hazardous waste, or that which is potentially dangerous when disposed of like battery and fluorescent light, is also usually recycled.

Modernity paved the way to the massive production of solid waste. And this has become one of the many gripping environmental issues faced by the world today, especially because the problem in solid waste transcends the “now” generation. Whatever is done, or not done, to solve the problem affects the heritage of the next generation. In developed countries, solid waste management has become a priority and certain systems are fully operational. Same is true with some developing countries. However, many other countries need to catch up.

Truth be told, hardly anyone thinks of garbage. Once something graduates from its intended use, it is immediately considered trash, thrown off, and then forgotten. But solid waste management is everyone’s responsibility. It is not solely for governments to practice. Not only for businesses. And not for a few individuals.

Everyone makes waste and it is only necessary that everyone takes part in properly handling solid waste.

Pros and Cons of Residential Solar Energy System

Harnessing the power of the sun’s ray to create energy to power our house is very appealing. But the question is, « Is everything about solar energy good? »

Looking at the current price of fossil fuel-based electricity, it is quite impractical to convert into solar energy system. However, with the growing concern on the state of the earth, there is really a need to find other means of energy aside from what power plants are using right now. Where do you place yourself?

Whether you are an advocate of clean energy or simply care about where your finances go, looking at the pros and cons of residential solar energy system will help you decide on whether to convert or not.

Pros

Solar energy is free. Did you know that the earth absorbs 174 pettawatts of solar radiation? This means that we have more than enough source of free energy to power every house in the world. Unfortunately, most of our energy is still drawn from oil, gas and coal. But in recent years, there is a steady increase of demand for alternative and renewable energy like solar power. It is estimated that the demand for alternative sources of energy will increase by 53% between 1999 and 2020.

Solar energy is clean, renewable and sustainable. Because the energy created from the sun’s rays does not produce byproducts like those from fossil fuel power plants (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, mercury or carbon dioxide), it does not contribute to pollution. Accordingly, the increase in the use of solar energy and other alternative forms of energy will decrease the demand for greenhouse gases-producing power plants.

The price of photovoltaic cells is steadily decreasing. The demand for solar panels has risen by 57% in the United States in 2007 and is steadily increasing on a monthly basis. The increase in demand results to the improvement of solar technology as a whole. The prices of photovoltaic cells have declined on the average of 4% every year over the past 15 years.

Solar panels can be installed on most rooftops, eliminating the problem of finding a suitable place for installation. Solar panels require little or no maintenance. The original photovoltaic cells technology is used for most satellites orbiting our earth today which are not maintained at all. Many solar panel manufacturers give 25 to 40 years warranty on their products.

Because most areas of the country receive a substantial amount of sunlight throughout the year, solar panels can be installed anywhere.

Many states in the country give tax credits and rebates to households who want to install solar energy system. Check with your state government the cost of these incentives.

Cons

While the prices of PV cells are in constant decline, the cost of installation is substantially high compared to the current electric cost. But the good thing is, after your initial cash out, you don’t have to pay every month on electric bills for the rest of your life.

On areas cities and areas with heavy pollution problem, solar energy may not work as fine. Weather can also affect the efficiency of solar energy. If it is raining, overcast weather or if there is a hurricane, the solar panels’ efficiency is decreased.

You are only producing energy during day time.

These are general pros and cons you might encounter when considering the conversion to solar energy system. It would be best if your decision is based on location, cost, budget, rebates, tax credits and practicality.

The Various Tasks of Marine Biology

There are so many professions that you can get by taking marine biology as a major. The important thing is that you complete all your basic subjects then find the right course and work that you are truly interested in. You can better boost your chances of finding the perfect job that offers substantial salary, together with the right people, equipment and facilities that make your research worthwhile. Here is a guideline of what to expect.

The Assistant Professor

As an assistant professor, you may be tasked to go to very remote locations such as Antarctica to do fieldwork for geology or oceanography. You will most likely go to the destination via a research ship. A program will lend out ships to researchers so that they do not have to purchase cold-weather gear that ranges up to several thousands of dollars. The parka or ship will have to be returned at the end of the research. Some of your objectives can include studying rock formations, trying out new deep submersible technologies and comparing animal behavior in various locations.

The Associate Professor

The associate professor receives around $65,000 to $100,000 each year. You will need to be a professor in geophysics and marine geology to be a professor. The typical work averages around 70 hours every week. Some of the things that the professor does include studying the role of volcanoes to support life without sunlight, learning how the lost city hydrothermal system was created, creating new sensors that pass through the vents, discovering new vent systems and working on a seafloor observatory.

Deep Sea Work

There can be many liens of research as a deep sea biologist. One line may involve studying the communities of various animals that thrive on the skeletons of dead whales found int he deep sea. The other area may involve studying seamount communities and deep-sea corals. You may study the distribution of corals, invertebrates and the dispersion of invertebrates between seamounts.

The submersible pilot works about 40 hours each week. The hours will highly depend on the sea conditions and weather. Your job will most likely involve supporting scientist research. You will pilot and act as a technician for the sub. The submersible has to be ready every time there is a dive. Scientists have to go underwater and back to the surface in the safest manner possible. You will also be managing the science collection equipment like cameras and life support systems.

Administrative Work

If you want to be an NOAA physical scientist or administrator, you need to have excellent credentials. Your work can include developing geography information systems and data linked to marine and coastal environments. You have to create management plans for marine protected areas. You may also be tasked to be project manager for huge undersea expeditions, using both unmanned and manned submersible devices.

You have to be committed to studying and learning about the natural systems of both coastal and marine locations. As a result, you can give information needed to effectively manage the ecosystem.

Waste Management Through Waste Minimization

Today’s waste management has developed several ways of waste disposal methods in trying to contain the ever-growing size of civilization’s refuse materials. Waste management through minimization of waste materials shows great promise.

This is because in waste minimization, control and management would go back to the waste producers themselves (individual persons, companies, manufacturers, factories) and not only on the waste materials.

Minimization

Traditionally, waste management processes the waste material after it had been created. From there, other waste management systems take place: re-use, recycling, composting, incineration, energy conversion, etc.

Waste minimization takes the process one step further back. It actually is one system that includes the process itself and the policy of simply reducing the amount of waste generated to the barest minimum by the primary producer itself – a single person or a company.

Waste sources

The main sources of waste vary from country to country. In developed countries in Europe, most waste comes from the manufacturing industry, agriculture, construction and demolition industries. In developing or under-developed countries, a big part of waste comes from the households and society at large.

Waste minimization processes

The following are some of the waste minimization processes at work these days.

- Both waste minimization and resource maximization of products can begin at the design stage. A product’s number of components can be reduced to make it easier to take apart for repairs or recycling. At the design stage, a product may be steered away from using toxic materials, or reduce its volume.

- Minimization of waste and maximization of resources again go hand-in-hand in optimizing the use of raw materials. Patterns for a dress can be cut in such a way that there is a minimum of unused portions in the clothing materials.

- Another way is the reuse of scrapped materials back into the production process. In industries like paper manufacture, damaged rolls and other scraps are returned and incorporated again to the paper-making process. In plastics manufacture, cut-offs and other scraps are re-incorporated into new products.

- This is for products specifically designed for its intended use. Packaging materials will be a waste if for reasons of, say cost-cutting, the quality is reduced and the food it is intended to protect is spoiled instead.

- Through improved quality control and monitoring, the number of product rejects is kept to a minimum. Increasing inspection frequency and the number of inspection points via automated and continuous monitoring equipments is now integrated into existing systems.

- Shipping raw materials directly to the places of manufacture reduces accidents, less protective wrappings and enclosures and other safety measures and devices designed for long circuitous handling and shipment.

Benefits and other considerations

Waste minimization is related to the efforts of minimizing the use of resources and energy by way of fewer materials and efficient designs, for instance.

This also entails thorough knowledge of the production process, continuous tracking of the material’s life cycle from cradle (extraction/creation) to grave (waste). This is feasible in large manufacturing industries starting from the plants to the stores all the way to the consumer.

Today, waste management is employing waste minimization as yet another reliable ammunition in the fight against pollution and environmental hazards in the complex business of waste disposal and management.

Wind and Solar Power

Going back to the basics is the trend these days. Many people are now aware of the many problems faced by the world which includes pollution, depletion of natural resources, increasing population, and many others. With so many problems to deal with, people don’t know where to start. You don’t have to be a hero to help save the world and address its many problems. Why not contribute in your own little way by using solar power and wind power?

Sunlight and air can be converted into energy though solar and wind power. A solar power system collects sunlight which can directly heat homes or it can convert the heat into usable electricity and store them in batteries. Wind energy can also create usable electricity or the mechanical energy can also be used directly.

There are advantages of using solar and wind power. After the initial expenses for the installation of the systems, you can enjoy free energy for many years. Most of the power systems last for approximately twenty years and requires little maintenance. As long as the systems are cleaned once in a while, it will surely work efficiently. Solar and wind power are both pollution free and does not emit greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Solar panels and wind turbines require little maintenance. Some people are concerned about wasting land to install wind turbines but you can still use the land for planting crops and for grazing animals.

According to researchers, the efficiency of these systems relies on the environmental elements. Germany and Japan are leading the way to the improvement of solar energy despite the fact that these countries get very little sunshine in a year. On the other hand, wind turbines are too noisy and unsightly. Turbine blades cause the noise and the huge structure can ruin any landscape.

To produce significant energy, you will need a lot of solar panels or reflectors and turbines. Size is a vital consideration for producing the needed energy. Have you ever been into remote areas? You can use solar power and wind power to generate the needed electricity. During daytime, you can depend on solar power to provide your electric needs and at night, you can use the wind turbines.

Solar power systems and wind turbines are not very difficult to install. In fact, there are now DIY kits that can be readily purchased locally and in online stores. You will just follow the guided instructions and get the necessary materials. The systems can be installed over the weekend. For those who live in the city, you can take advantage of the tax incentives, financial options, rebates, loans, and grants offered by the government. That way, you can have the system installed at a very affordable cost. In the case of wind turbines, you will need a lot of space. There are now turbines that produce less or no noise at all which are excellent for homes with close neighbors.

The decision to use solar power or wind power is a matter of personal choice that is usually affected by certain factors like money (investment), space, and energy requirements. Just imagine making a one-time investment and after that you can already enjoy unlimited and free supply of electricity. Regular inspection can ensure that the systems are working efficiently.

The Marine Mammals

Studying marine mammals may be one of the most interesting parts in a marine biologist’s profession. There are 3 main orders that you need to know about. Each category has its own unique mechanism, feeding pattern and characteristics. These animals tend to live in different places as well, others in groups and the rest in families or alone. Once you become familiar with their lifestyle and features, you get to appreciate the species more.

Cetacea Order

The whole lifecycle of the order Cetacea is aquatic. There are a couple of sub-orders founded ont he feeding mechanism – Odonticeti and Mysticeti. The sub-order Mysticeti includes baleen whales, blue whales, minke whales, grey whales and right whales. The whales feature mechanisms to boost the success feeding.

The sub-order Odonticeti includes animals like killer whales, dolphins, toothed whales and porpoises. River and coastal species reside in small home ranges if they are offshore. Others prefer warm equatorial waters, while the rest are located in every ocean like the bottle-nosed dolphins and killer whales. Some animals like big baleen whales move from the tropics for winter breeding to high latitudes for summer feeding. Animals propel themselves using the broad and boneless tail flukes. They also shed skin and exude oil as much as 12 times per day to reduce friction.

Pinnipedia Order

These animals adapt to the environment through a variety of processes. Heat conservation is done and get a low SA/V ratio and develop insulation through their hair and blubber. All the animals moult, after breeding in the summer while the others should stay out of water until everything is done.

The respiration is done by exhaling before the deep dives. They have relatively high concentrations of haemoglobin and myoglobin. The heart of the animals drop during deep dives and the blood is limited to the heart and brain. Dives can be as deep as 1700m, lasting anywhere between 80 to 160 hours.

Sirenia Order

Sirenians are sought mainly for their hide, oil and meat. They spend their entire lives in the water and are the only aquatic animals labeled as herbivores. The flat tail propels itself via paddles. These can walk at the benthic or move backwards. Locomotion is usually slow but they can also burst at around 13 knots. Sirenians inhale before they dive, just like whales.
When they breathe, they can swap about 90% of lung volume.

Manatees can see very clearly underwater, while taste and smell are retained. These touch when they greet each other and lead to chirps, between calf and mother. Dugongs can live for as long as 70 years but fecundity is rather low. The animals reach puberty at 10 years old and produce only 1 calf every 5 years. Their population has to be protected to maintain the ability to recover from environmental stress and hunting.

Interacting with Man

All animals have interactions with man, although sirenians are the most widely known to be friendly towards humans. Fishing nets and fishing lines tend to be a problem for most of these animals.

Waste Management System In Businesses

In businesses, waste management is believed to be at the lowest part of the priority list, if at all it is a priority. But if you want your business to make an impact on the society and on the environment specifically, waste management should be part of your business priorities. In its own capacity, waste management system in businesses boosts profile, integrity, and profits.

Benefits of waste management system
Aside from having an orderly working environment, an active waste management system generates other benefits. One: Your business will promote environmental and social responsiveness and will therefore create a better image. Some companies are more interested working with businesses that are environmental advocates, and such businesses are generally offered various opportunities. Two: A waste management system boosts your employees’ morale.

It is given that employment benefits up the employees’ mood and morale, but environmental and social awareness does so even more. In an employee’s mind, environmental and social responsiveness speaks of the company’s integrity. Three: There will be savings and profits from establishing a waste management system. You can save and generate income by selling your old office tools or have the broken items repaired instead of throwing them away and buying new ones. Also, by having waste management policies, you are decreasing your chances of incurring law violations and therefore fines.

Waste reduction: A practical way of managing wastes
Businesses are generally huge waste generators, but you can contribute to waste management on a larger scale by incorporating waste reduction in your waste management policies. In essence, waste reduction efforts focus on the prevention of creating new waste by reusing and recycling materials. There are several ways to reduce waste in the office setting, and here are some of them:

1. Reduce the use of paper. If, for instance, you issue double invoice, you can probably try to settle with just one. You can also ask everyone in the office to print and write on the two sides of papers. Businesses use a lot of papers in a day, and if they are reused, there will be a considerable decrease in the amount of papers that are sent to landfills or incinerators. You can also cut down on your paper expenses.

2. Find new use for potential waste materials. The plastic water bottle can probably work as a vase. The cardboard can probably be some form of a décor. The thing is, before you label something as a trash, consider first if there is another use for it.

3. Repair office equipment, tool, or appliance. If a certain item, however, is beyond repair, you can dismantle it and get the parts that you can still use, recycle, or sell.

As you look around your office, you can come up with more ideas in waste management. For them to be more relevant, you can involve your staff and ask for their own ideas. After all, waste management system in businesses is not the sole endeavor of the employer; it should be a team effort.