Health and beauty

Heartburn-the principal sign of acid reflux disease, causes and cares

Acid reflux disease is a product of the failure of the esophageal sphincter to function properly. Because of abnormal acid production, digestive processes are affected and causes burning sensations in the stomach, chest and even up to the esophagus. Too low acid production causes the valve in the stomach not to open. So the tendency of the stomach acids is to rise up and inflame the esophagus. On the other hand, too much acid production follows the same case.

There are many factors that can be deemed responsible for acid reflux disease. One of which is the use of too much salt. Aside from alcohol, caffeine and smoking which all add to the risk of acid reflux, salt is unexpectedly concluded to cause and aggravate the disease. This finding is in accordance to the studies of researchers from Sweden. They found out from the lifestyle of their samplings that extra table salt increases the risk of having acid reflux disease up to 70%. This is alarming because it is implied that extra table salt can harm more that alcohol and caffeine. A related study conducted by Dr. Roshini Rajapaksa of New York University Medical Center attested the same results on the risks of too much table salt.

Countless individuals who suffer from acid reflux disease also suffer the discomfort and pains of its symptoms. The principal sign of acid reflux disease is persistent heartburn. Seldom heartburn experienced by most people may not lead to an acid reflux problem but a regular occurrence of up to thrice a week calls for proper attention already. In some cases, there are individuals who do not suffer from heartburn although they have acid reflux disease.

Heartburn is usually experienced after eating a heavy meal or when bending or lying down. The symptom is characterized by the burning sensation that originates from the upper abdomen and to the back of the breastbone. Then a burning sensation is felt in the chest. As time passes by, the pain travels up to the throat until you experience a sour taste in your mouth. The pain radiates all throughout the back that you become uneasy and unable to do things.

Some of the other signs of acid reflux disease are regular hoarseness especially in the morning, finding a hard time swallowing, choking sensation where the food seems to be stuck in the throat, constant dry cough with unknown cause and bad breath. These are just some of the symptoms that the person inflicted by acid reflux disease can notice on himself.

These symptoms, nevertheless, can be treated depending upon the frequency and the level of pain. Particularly, heartburn may need greater attention because it could be more than the pains it caused you. Further tests should be undergone to point out the real root and the length of damages that the heartburn had gone. Only the doctor can prescribe you the medications that will reduce an acute heartburn.

Healthy habits such as proper diet and exercise should also be developed in your everyday system so as to avoid the symptoms and totally cure the acid reflux disease. And bad habits such as smoking and drinking alcohol and caffeine beverages should also be avoided or minimized. This is the natural way of treating any disease.

Calorie Counter Guide The Single Most Important Thing To Help You Lose Weight

Finding an easy calorie counter guide when you are dieting can prove to be the single most important thing that helps you to finally lose weight. There are numerous tools and devices available to help you out with this task. Find out the benefits to having a good calorie counter guide to help you when dieting.

When you are trying to lose weight, you will want to find the most efficient and effective approach to dieting. There is no magic potion or solution to losing weight. You simply have to take in fewer calories than you need to maintain your current weight. You can speed up reduction through exercise for even faster weight loss. If you simply cut your calories, you will start to see a weight loss. The use of a calorie counter guide is an effective way to track your daily calorie intake.

Often, you eat foods throughout the day without any thought as to their calorie or nutritional value. These are the foods that you eat quickly without thinking about them such as a couple of pieces of hard candy or a handful of chips. Small items like this can add up to a great many additional calories in your day. This will thwart your weight loss goals. When you use a calorie counter guide to find out the calories in every food that you eat, you are more likely to pay attention to those quick little snacks.

There are some great handheld calorie counter guides that will assist you in your efforts to lose that weight. You will be able to quickly check out the caloric content of any food you are thinking about eating. You will know instantly if it is something you wish to eat on your particular diet plan.

Most of these handheld calorie counter guides have a large database of foods already programmed into them. You will be able to check the calorie content of the foods already stored in the device and also add some of your favorite items so that they are stored in the memory as well.

Another feature of many of these devises is that you are able to track your water intake and other items that you might like to keep track of as well.

Technology in the form of these calorie counter guides has made it easier than ever to keep track of the calories you eat throughout the day. This allows you to stick to your diet plan. If you are trying to lose weight you can use one of these calorie counter devices to assist you on staying on plan. Keeping track of the calories you consume is a proven way to both lose weight and to maintain your current weight. Additionally, make sure you watch the kinds of food you are eating, drink lots of water, get plenty of exercise and keep track of your calories with a handheld calorie counter guide.

Various Philadelphia Teeth Whitening Services

If you live in Philadelphia and you want to have whiter teeth, then you are in luck. There are a lot of Philadelphia teeth whitening services which are willing to take your case. In fact, you do not even have to leave your seat in order to find one. The internet can supply all the information you need in order to contact a Philadelphia teeth whitening service. Here are some that you can find on the internet:

1) BriteSmile – By visiting their site at britesmile.com, you get the chance to save up to 100 dollars on teeth whitening. Their offices can be located all over the United States. This means that they also have Philadelphia teeth whitening services! In fact, in Philadelphia, there are 15 dentists who make use of the BriteSmile method. This means that you can pick a dentist at your convenience.

One advantage of this Philadelphia teeth whitening system is that it only takes one hour to give you a whole new smile. Now that’s fast. Some people simply do not have the time for long teeth whitening appointments. Others may need whiter teeth because of a social emergency. This Philadelphia teeth whitening system can provide whiter teeth painlessly and in a shorter amount of time. In fact, people are so confident about the BriteSmile system that they offer a guarantee! Where else can you guarantee your teeth’s whiteness?

2) Philadelphia Dentistry – This Philadelphia teeth whitening service offers two options for you. You can try the common tray bleaching procedure, which involves getting fitted with a mouthpiece which will help hold the bleaching agent to your teeth. In this method, you wear the headpiece for a number of hours a day (depending on the dentist’s recommendation) for a certain number of days. This will remove any discoloration from your teeth after a few days.

If being fitted with a mouthpiece isn’t your style, you could also opt for the ZOOM teeth whitening procedure. This procedure only takes one hour to give you the brighter smile that you’ve always wanted. A Philadelphia teeth whitening service perform this procedure using higher concentrations of bleach and is ideal if you are experiencing a social emergency and need white teeth fast.

3) Private Dentists – A lot of Philadelphia teeth whitening services are performed by dentists who are practicing on their own. Many dentists advertise on the internet and make use of various methods to lighten your teeth. Some may recommend tray bleaching since this is the most inexpensive form of teeth whitening. However, some may consider in-office procedures and would request you to make several appointments in order to get the best results.

There are also private dentists which offer teeth whitening services which are affiliated with various companies. Philadelphia teeth whitening services will help you get teeth that are at least eight shades whiter within one hour!

Why do people look for Philadelphia teeth whitening services? Well, it is because of the fact that people show a glimpse of themselves with their smile. People notice smiles easily. Because of this, people also notice teeth easily. A gleaming set of teeth will increase your attractiveness to other people. This means that by finding a Philadelphia teeth whitening service, you can be the best you can be. And that is a very desirable objective.

Snore Your Way to a Good Night Sleep with natural remedies without side effects

Believe me, relationships are not ruined by irreconcilable differences, third parties or simply falling out of love. Some relationships are ruined by yep, snoring. Studies show that 23% of couples suffer from snoring problems. In fact, 80% of couples usually end up sleeping in different rooms because they can’t stand, once again yes…their partner’s snoring.

But more than the danger of ruined relationships, snoring can also lead to a serious case of Obstructive Sleep Apnea, a condition common among the depressed and those who are always exhausted. Sleep apnea can increase blood pressure, reducing the flow of oxygen to the brain and eventually, leading to stroke, heart attack or even worse, death.

Other studies further show that it can lead to diabetes. Since snoring reduces the intake of oxygen, the body produces more catecholamines, which leads to insulin resistance and ultimately, diabetes.

So, what’s the answer? There are a hundred and one natural remedies, plus other technology-aided remedies even involving surgeries. But another way out of this problem are through anti-snore exercises.

Of course, it’s important to identify first the cause of snoring. Normally, as most snoring cases go, it’s a problem with breathing. There are throat exercises that open up your throat, preventing it from closing when you sleep. Such exercises strengthen and lift up the soft palate, so it won’t flap and rub against the tongue. With tongue exercises, you can strengthen it and prevent it from dropping into your throat when you sleep, which usually happens when you sleep on your back. It’s also important to loosen up the jaw as tense jaw muscles puts pressure on the breathing passages.

Try this exercise to loosen the jaw.

Start by putting the upper and lower molars together very lightly. Once done, open your mouth and press the molars as wide as you can. Do not stretch. Do ten to twenty repetitions. Focus on the molars – out them together and then lower your jaw. After several repetitions, you should feel your jaw muscles strengthening and the back of your mouth opening up. Feel the muscles contracting at the back of your throat? If you feel them opening up, then you’re doing a good job relaxing and strengthening them.

This simple exercise doesn’t even take you an hour. You can do twenty repetitions of this exercise in a minute or two a day.

For more anti-snoring exercises, check out sites on the Web offering cure-snoring programs. These exercises are simple, easy do-it-yourself, no-need-for-complicated-machinery-or-device activities you can try any time.

So, start those exercises and no-snore your way to a good night’s sleep. Yeah, sure, you might feel crazy opening your mouth and exercising your jaw, but it sure will be worth it. There’s nothing wrong with trying, afterall, especially when it’s an answer to your sleepless nights.

What Are The Sleep Apnea Tests?

Though the medical field took note of sleep apnea as early as 1965, it is only just recently that the public became more aware of this sleep disorder. In 2004, the sudden death of football superstar Reggie White due to sleep apnea complications made headlines and has since allowed sleep apnea emerge as one of the sleep disorders of top concern.

Though its nature is not as serious as cancer, diabetes, and other more popular fatal conditions, sleep apnea is equally threatening, much so is the undiagnosed and untreated case. Therefore, any person with suspected sleep apnea should immediately undergo sleep apnea tests to eliminate the possibilities of complications.

Sleep apnea diagnostic tests are done in sleep centers or laboratories by a qualified sleep specialist or a doctor. With technological advancements, a few tests can now be performed at home, although these tests should still be performed under the guidance of the attending physician. Which test to perform is determined by the pretest results, symptoms, and availability of the tests. Some of the tests that help diagnose sleep apnea are the following:

1. Polysomnography. Because of its extensive nature, polysomnography is considered the standard test for diagnosing sleep apnea and its severity. Polysomnography monitors and records activities of the brain, heart, and lungs; eye, arm, and leg movements; oxygen levels; air flow; breathing and respiratory patterns; and heart rate. It is used for all suspected cases of sleep apnea and other sleep disorders.

2. Oximetry. The purpose of oximetry is to monitor the oxygen levels in the blood. It is an overnight test done at home and uses a sleeve that is fitted into the finger, which shows if there is an abnormality in the oxygen level. A low registry of oxygen means a case of sleep apnea. Oximetry, however, cannot screen all cases of sleep apnea, so doctors normally run polysomnography tests to confirm and validate oximetry results.

3. Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Usually performed to test excessive daytime sleepiness, MSLT measures how fast a patient falls asleep by allowing him opportunities to sleep during the day. People without sleep disorders normally fall asleep within 10 to 20 minutes, while those who have, especially those with sleep apnea, do so in less than five minutes.

4. Portable cardiorespiratory tests. These are simplified tests that are designed to use at home. They measure airflow and breathing patterns, among other things. However, these tests are only done with use of comprehensive sleep evaluation and upon the recommendation and supervision of the attending physician or qualified sleep specialist.

After the diagnosis, the doctor or sleep specialist may refer another specialist or set of specialists to manage the cause and effect of sleep apnea. These specialists include cardiologist (heart problems), psychiatrist (emotional and behavioral issues), neurologist (nervous system irregularities), and otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat abnormalities). Determining appropriate treatments must then take place after the diagnosis.

As it seems, taking sleep apnea tests is the first step toward sleep apnea management. If one has symptoms of sleep apnea such as snoring, daytime fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness, mood changes, and anxiety, going to a sleep specialist or doctor should be an immediate action.

Sleep apnea should never be taken for granted or underestimated. Social figures and ordinary people alike are not spared from this serious sleep disorder.

Know More About Skin Care Basics

Being the largest, not to mention most exposed, organ of the body, the skin offers many telling details about a person’s identity—from one’s lifestyle to choice of products. This is why the skin has been subject to frequent, sometimes intentional, scrutiny. And for fear of failing the test, a lot of people have paid much closer attention to the skin. This is purely normal; in fact, proper skin care should be in the mind of every individual. This doesn’t mean, however, incorporating complex skin care routine in daily itineraries, because practicing skin care basics should do well enough.

Here are the four basics of skin care. Do them with regularity and your skin will look as radiant and young as you want it to.

1. Cleanse. A healthy skin is a clean skin, so regularly cleanse your skin with a compatible facial cleanser. A good cleanser removes dirt, excess oil, and germs, while being gentle on the skin. When choosing a cleanser, consider your type of skin and be extra critical. Some cleansers come in the form of soaps, others in liquid form. There are beauty experts who prefer using liquid cleansers since they believe soaps can strip off moisture from the skin and leave it dry. However, this is an issue of personal preference. Should you be more comfortable using soap, it’s okay. But be sure to choose mild soaps.

TIP: Do not over-wash your skin because it will do your skin more harm than good. At the most, wash your face twice—morning and night. Some people prefer to wash with only lukewarm water in the morning, and use cleanser at night. Again, whether you omit the cleanser from your morning routine is an issue of preference.

2. Moisturize. The goal of moisturizers is to keep moisture locked into the skin, preventing it to be dry, flaky, and cracked. Every skin type needs to be moisturized, even the oily skin. Good thing is, there are specially designed moisturizers for each skin type.

TIP: Because of the advanced science, moisturizers today are a far cry from their early counterparts, which used to be only made of water and wax mixtures. Nowadays, there are ingredients that replenish natural oil and help with exfoliation, such as glycerol, ceramides, and hydroxyl acids. Look for these ingredients when choosing a moisturizer.

3. Exfoliate. Few people know that exfoliation is as important as cleansing the skin and so leave it out from their routine. This should not be the case. Skin exfoliation at least once a week is necessary to remove dead skin cells that cause blackheads, whiteheads, and pimples. With regular exfoliation, the skin is smooth and radiant.

TIP: Facial scrubs have potent exfoliation properties, which is why many skin care manufacturers are now producing their own scrub products. But because there are a lot of options in the market, it pays to be a little critical. When looking for a facial scrub, choose the one with small grains. This is proven to work more gently on the skin.

4. Sun-protect. A lifetime of sun exposure causes most of the skin damages, and usually these damages, which include wrinkles, dark spots, uneven skin, and dryness, appear later in life. But because they tend to manifest slowly, these damages are all too often ignored. Protect your skin from the sun, particularly from the damaging UV rays, early on and use sunscreen protection.

TIP: When you don’t apply sunscreen, your efforts of practicing the other skin care basics are all in vain. So start investing on sunscreen and choose those products with SPF 15 or more. For more protection, apply sunscreen 20 minutes before going out and reapply when necessary.

How Physiotherapy Can Help With Sports Injuries

When players have sports injuries, they turn to physiotherapy for rehabilitation. Physiotherapy, also called physical therapy, offers help whether the player is having surgery to correct the damage or not.

One example of the many sports injuries is an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. This is an injury to the knee. It is one of the common sports injuries in people who play sports that challenge their knees, such as hockey, skating, skiing, basketball, and of course, football. It can limit the range of a player’s motion in that leg, and make the leg weak.

Surgery is sometimes done for these sports injuries, but physiotherapy is always a part of the treatment. The three major exercises done to start the healing process of ACL are heel slides, quad sets, and straight leg raises.

Heel slides are exercises for ACL sports injuries that are easy to understand, but may be painful to do at first. One simply lies on the bed or floor with the foot down. Then, one slides the foot slowly towards the buttocks until it hurts a little, and slides it back. This and the other exercises help prepare the knee for surgery or to heal without it.

Another of the sports injuries that physiotherapy is used for is tennis elbow. One might get tennis elbow from playing tennis, certainly, but it can also come about from any activity that involves twisting the wrist.

Sports injuries like tennis elbow are treated with a comprehensive plan of physiotherapy. Exercises are explained and assigned. Another common procedure for sports injuries is the use of ultrasound. Ultrasound is a way of applying heat deep into the muscle for pain relief.

Electrical stimulation can be used to keep pain from being felt through the nervous system. It is used for tennis elbow and many other sports injuries. Massage and manual therapy can also be used for physiotherapy.

Massage is one of the forms of soft tissue manipulation. However, soft tissue manipulation is to muscles what chiropractic is to bones. It deals not only with muscle, but with tendons and connective tissue as well. It is a specialized field of physiotherapy that has been used for people with sports injuries on many occasions.

As many children’s sports teams are becoming ever more competitive, sports injuries among youngsters is increasing. Often, a well-meaning parent will tell the child to shake it off and keep playing. It is even more important for children to get adequate physiotherapy than it is for adults. Children are just developing, and a problem in childhood can lead to lifelong pain.

Some sports injuries happen because something physically traumatic happens to your body. Someone runs into you as you run with the football towards the end zone, for example. Other times, it is simply a matter of the physical demands you put on your body.

Physiotherapy is instrumental in the healing of many sports injuries. Many professional sports teams have physiotherapists on their staffs. In fact, either ACL or tennis elbow can become permanent conditions without the use of physiotherapy procedures.

Sugar and the pH miracle diet

The pH diet stresses a balanced approach to eating. By limiting the intake of acidic foods and increasing the intake of alkaline foods one can achieve optimum health. One of the main factors in the fight against acidic pH levels is sugar. Sugar is an epidemic in our modern world. The average American consumes 2 to 3 pounds of sugar each week, that translates to over 135 pounds of sugar per person per year. This alarming number is attributed to the wide popularity of sugar as an additive. Sugar is in everything, hiding in various forms. Sucrose, dextrose, and high fructose corn syrups are active ingredient in all processed food and condiments. These highly refined sweeteners leave a bitter taste in the mouths of those who are starting out on the pH diet due to their universal acceptance as a “necessary evil’

With sugar’s radical effect on insulin levels, the body has no fighting chance against the damage. When insulin levels drop; so do the release of growth hormone. These growth hormones depress the immune system that leaves the body open to a host of diseases and maladies. Insulin also inhibits the body’s ability to fight off weight gain and elevated triglyceride levels. Put quite simply, the higher in simple sugars a food is, the more likely it will promote fat storage in the body. These stored fat cells play a host to acidic waste that in turn degrade the structure of red blood cells in the bloodstream.

Sugar also fights for control of the cellular development in the body with Vitamin C. From a structural standpoint, Vitamin C and Simple Sugar are quite similar. As sugar levels go up in the body, they compete with one another when they enter cells. If there is a higher concentration of sugar in the bloodstream which will allow more sugar into thirsty cells leaving little to no room for Vitamin C. Without the phagocytizing effects of Vitamn C on cellular structures they are unable to fend off the attacks of viruses and bacteria. Lower white blood cell counts equal a suppressed immune system that isn’t strong enough to protect the body.

Sugar is devoid of vitamins and minerals and upon absorption steals vital micro-nutrients to help it metabolize into the system. A deficit is created when these micro-nutrients are not replaced. This deficiency causes fat cells and cholesterol to not be metabolized thus leading to high blood pressure and obesity. The ability of sugar to raise insulin levels artificially eventually leaves the pancreas dysfunctional and the body dependent on sugar. This is commonly referred to as diabetes. Simple sugars have also been attributed to gallstones, mood disorders, heart disease and even asthma. With all of the negative effects that sugars have been clinically linked to, is it any wonder that sugar is also one of the most acidic things you can put into your body.

Cancer is the most dangerous result of heavy sugar dependence. Cancerous cells thrive on lactic acid. This lactic acid produced by fermenting glucose is transported into the liver. A more acidic PH is produced by this buildup of lactic acid in the cancerous cells, the highly acidic nature of cancerous tumors is testament to this. The connection between sugars and unhealthy acidic levels in the bloodstream is clearly drawn through the connection of glucose (sugar) and cancerous cells. Simple sugars are quite simply a poison to the body that will eventually deteriorate the quality of cellular development and suppress the immune system to the point of failure.

By balancing the diet with an 80% alkaline and 20% acid induction of foods, supplements, and beverages you can decrease the risk of disease in the body. By replacing simple sugars with more complex ones or alkaline-based sweeteners such as Stevia, one can decrease the dependence on simple sugars and avoid bad health. Look carefully at ingredient labels and be aware of the many names that simple sugars hide behind. Become educated on how the body metabolizes simple sugars, as well as how carbohydrates can be broken down into simple sugars in the bloodstream. By arming yourself with information you can improve the quality of your life.

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Not Everyone With Multiple Sclerosis Is On Treatment

Why treatment is considered a must

Having multiple sclerosis types such as relapsing – remitting, progressive – relapsing and secondary – progressive means that a doctor must be consulted as quickly as possible since taking or undergoing of disease –modifying treatment is a must at this point.

Even though there are no exacerbations, or painful and unmanageable symptoms or a present hate of needles, a physician must be consulted right away. Despite the fact that MS-related drugs have some side effects and are oftentimes inconvenient, they are still very helpful in reducing the risk for relapses and can even decrease the severity of disability for most.

However, some of those who are diagnosed with multiple sclerosis choose not to undergo treatment. In a certain study that focused on the patterns of prescription of all of the MS drugs that are known to modify the disease process and its progression, ninety-two percent visit doctors while sixty-percent opt not to have therapy.

Common assumptions

There are some costly fees associated with private insurance that seem to deter them from having therapy.

There are those with only mild symptoms, more likely in the first stages of the disorder, and choose to postpone treatment. It seems like they would want to see first what happens if they do not accept treatment. In other cases, the doctors are the ones who advise their patients to delay having therapy, especially if the symptoms are only mild in severity.

In some cases, both the patient and the physician want to see first the results of a new medication.

Most of the time, those with MS just do not take treatment simply because they do not fully understand the pros and the cons of having or not having it. Some patients are also told by their corresponding doctors not to have treatment because they do not fit for the criteria for taking the certain treatment modality.

The many differences in the patient-physician communication can limit the uptake of the treatment.

Some doctors believe that the suitability of the medications can halt them from giving drug prescriptions. What the doctors know regarding internal organizational policies and rules about using drugs related to multiple sclerosis therapy may also halt them from openly prescribing such medications.

Dislike of needles

People diagnosed with multiple sclerosis are usually scared of needles. Actually, they are probably afraid of needles even before their multiple sclerosis onsets. It is a known fact that this part is definitely no fun.

None of the drugs for treating multiple sclerosis can be taken per orem, which means orally. This means that they have no other choice but to endure an intramuscular, intravenous or a subcutaneous form of the drug.

The drug’s side effects

In most cases, people just hate taking drugs. This is usually because they are afraid of the side effects that may occur. This fear is explainable and understandable but emphasis should still be given to older MS drugs such as Copaxone, Avonex, Rebif and Betaseron since they are all safe to take.

When in doubt about a certain drug, neurologists can be consulted since they are knowledgeable on which treatment methods fit a certain type of lifestyle. Also, they can provide some tips regarding the management of side effects.

Male Menopause: Symptoms and Treatment

The term « male menopause » is used to refer to the condition of men who have hormone levels drop after mid-life.

Male menopause is a subject of controversy in the medical society. In the case of women, menopause is related with the termination of a bodily operation, like when the monthly menstruation periods stop. Also, a critical drop in the hormone levels in women occurs along with menopause. For these reasons, doctors are debating on whether male menopause really exists.

In the case of men in their middle and elderly years, smaller quantities of testosterone are being created by the testicles. This is believed to be the underlying reasons behind the occurrence of symptoms of male menopause.

Men with menopause usually suffer from irritability, sleep disturbance, low sex drive, sweating, anxiety, sadness, memory problems, and erectile dysfunction.

In most cases, erectile dysfunction may be caused by other disorders. But testosterone deficiency may be one possibility.

It is important that men who suffer from symptoms related to low levels of testosterone be subjected to medical investigations like blood tests to evaluate testosterone levels.

Other reasons for having short testosterone levels include testicular dysfunction and probable inherited features.

As a treatment, hormone replacement therapy is being recommended for men with low levels of testosterone and symptoms that come with it.

Hormone replacement may not be applicable to older men who seek treatment for their erectile dysfunction unless they actually have very minimal levels of androgen. As for younger men with known hormone deficiency, it has been proven that nominal doses of testosterone can improve interest in sex.

Testosterone replacement therapy, which is also called as androgen replacement therapy, aims to reduce the symptoms brought about by male menopause. This method is a lifelong treatment, since testosterone deficiency is generally a permanent condition.

Testosterone replacement therapy is usually given as an oral prescription, implants, or injections.

The injection of testosterone is usually carried out once every two weeks.

The oral drugs are especially prescribed to those who can’t stand injections or implants.

The testosterone implants, which are being inserted under the skin of the buttock or abdomen work for a period of months. The implant works by releasing testosterone directly into the bloodstream.

Androgen therapy, however, comes with potential side effects and risks.

With low testosterone levels, the prostate tends to shrink. Hormone replacement therapy cannot recover a physically reduced prostate since it does not have influence in the levels of prostate specific antigen.

Androgen therapy may not be a cause of increased risk of prostate cancer for those who have naturally greater testosterone levels in the same age bracket.

On the other hand, the safety of hormone replacement therapy and its possible effects on the prostate, mental functioning, and cardiovascular system still need to undergo proper researches. Moreover, there is also a need to assess the probable benefits of androgen therapy on the bones and muscles.

Androgen therapy is said to increase the risk of heart diseases, although researches on this subject are uncertain. It is a known fact, however, that those with low testosterone levels have been found among heart attack victims. This opens the possibility that hormone replacement therapy could help prevent cardiovascular diseases.

Older men undiagnosed of prostate cancer should also take caution when being applied with androgens.

Sleep apnea, or the cessation of breathing during sleep, is also considered as a rare risk with hormone therapy.