CD Duplication

Music CD-R And Data CD-R

People who are new to computers and duplication, will
sometims confuse CD-R music media with CD-R data
media. While confusing them is easy to do, the
two are different indeed. Even if you have some
experience with computers, confusing them is very
easy to do.

As you may or may not know, there are differences
between music CD-R and data CD-R disks. The obvious
difference is, of course, the name. With one
named CD-R music and one named CD-R data, you
know there has to be some type of difference
between the two.

What’s known is that there are indeed technical
differences in what is embedded in blank music
CDs when compared to blank data CDs. These
differences center upon bytes that are within
the sub channels of the blank music disks.

This doesn’t affect the quality, as both audio
and data can be duplicated onto both music CD-R
disks and data CD-R disks. You can burn data onto
music CD-R, and music onto data CD-R media
without any problems. Keep in mind, whether or
not you get data on a music CD-R will depend
on what type of hardware you use to duplicate
the CD.

If you plan to use a PC to do all of your burning,
it won’t matter. A PC doesn’t differentiate
between music CD-R and data CD-R. PCs will see
a blank media CD and duplicate information on it
that pertains to the settings you have outlined
in the software you plan to use to burn the CD.

If you plan to use a seperate CD burner, it
may or may not let you burn data or music on
a generic blank or data CD-R. Some hardware
are funny like that, as they only want you to
use blank media with well known brand names
that they have approved of.

If you plan to do most of your CD duplication
on a computer, it really doesn’t matter which
type of blank CD-R you use. They will both
work fine in most cases when you store either
music or data. When storing data, you have a
limit of 700 MB, while music will have a limit
of a little over an hour of tunes.

For your duplication needs, computers are the
ideal way to copy media. You can use equipment
outside of a computer and CD burner, although
you’ll need to check the operations manual
and see what they recommend for media. If you
have a computer or access to one, it can do
wonders in the areas of music and data CD-R
duplication.

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Intro To CD Mastering

Even though many assume that the mixing of the
seperate audio tracks is the final step, a recording
should always be mastered well in order to sound
great. CD mastering is the final chance for
creative input when you create a compact disc.
After the discs has been mastered, it can be printed,
reproduced, and then sold.

The process of mastering a CD actually involves
several steps. The first step is putting the songs,
or tracks at this point in the correct order. The
length of time between the songs is also adjusted,
along with the editing of the songs. Any unlisted
or secret songs on the CD are normally added at
this point as well.

There are several ways that you can go about
mastering a CD. First of all, the mix can be
sent to a professional CD mastering engineer,
which is what professional musicians normally
decide to do.

The mastering engineers will often work in their
own mastering facilities, which are very different
from standard studios, in the fact that they have
much less gear and are designed for the best
possible playback of the mix as possible in
order to fix anything that’s wrong.

Aside from mastering engineers, CDs can also be
mastered at home using computer software. This
option is normally more realistic for unsigned
artists or musicians who are just starting out
with their music. Depending on the software
quality and skill of the individual doing the
mastering, the CD may turn out perfect or it
may sound very unprofessional.

You can also refer to online CD mastering as
another option. Cds that are mastered online
can be great, as instead of sending a mix to a
mastering engineer, the mix is instead sent
via the Internet. To do this, you’ll need a
high speed Internet connection.

The cheapest way to go about mastering a CD is
with free mastering. Artists and musicians may
choose to use free mastering programs with
demos or other earlier recordings that artists
will use to send to major record labels to
generate some interest in their music.

The major differences with a professional CD
and an amateur recording is normally found in
the mastering. Every song that you hear played
on the radio is thoroughly mastered in order
to sound better.

While you can master using free programs or
your computer, a professional CD mastering
engineer is normally the best way to do business
if your band is looking to make a profit from
your music.

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Intro To CD Duplication

The first thing you must know, is that there are many
different types of CD duplication. Some of them happen
to be illegal, which is why you’ll need to make sure
that the CDs you are duplicating are allowed by local
laws and regulations.

The CD duplication process is basically taking one
CD and making a copy of it, or if you prefer, many
copies of it. A CD can store information of many
forms, such as pictures, movies, data, and even
music. Therefore, you’ll need to determine which type
of duplication you are interested in.

You’ll also need to think about how many copies you
plan to make as well, as the costs of equipment will
vary. Most computers that you buy these days will
come with a CD-RW drive, and the software you’ll
need to make copies of the CD disks.

CD duplication is very easy to do, as you all you have
to do is a few clicks. Even if you are new to
computers, you’ll find that duplicating CDs is one
of the easiest things you’ll do with your computer.

With the common software, you can copy an audio or
even a data disk in just a few minutes. The most
common program is Nero, as it does wonders for CD
duplication and CD-RW drives. If you have access
to Nero, you’ll find it very easy to use and very
handy to have installed on your computer.

Once you begin to copy CDs, you can make copies of
your audio CDs, back up your computer, even make
copies of your pictures. The sky is the limit with
CD duplication – which is the main reason it has
become so popular over the years.

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How To Copy CDs

Copying CDs is something that is very popular now more
than ever. When CD burners and duplication was first
introduced, people caught on although it wasn’t nearly
as popular as it is today. These days, millions of
people throughout the world copy audio, data, and
even video to CDs.

To make a copy of a CD, you’ll need a master to copy,
a blank disk, a CD-RW drive, and the proper software.
Most newer computers include either a CD-RW or DVD-RW
drive. If your computer is older, you’ll need to go
out and buy the drive, which doesn’t cost much money
and is very easy to install.

If you have a DVD-RW drive, you’ll be able to copy
both CDs and DVDs. The rate of copying will vary,
with 4X being the slowest and up to 48X being the
fastest. If your drive supports 48X, you can duplicate
a CD in a matter of minutes.

Once you have the CD-RW or DVD-RW drive and some
blank CD-R media, all you need is the software to
duplicate. Nero is among the most popular, as well
as Sonic Record Now and Easy CD Creator. There are
many different types out there, from those that cost
money to the freeware software that doesn’t cost
anything to use.

Once you have everything you need, simply run the
software and create your disk. You can copy many
types of media, including pictures, video, audio,
and even data from your computer. Depending on what
you want to copy, all need to do is select it from the
software menu and let it rip.

CD duplication is a lot of fun and easy for everyone
to learn as well. You can back up a lot of things,
or just save pictures of your special memories – the
choices are entirely up to you.

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Factors In CD Duplication

The process of writing data to a recordable CD can
be a complex process, as it demands a lot from both
hardware and software programs. Much of this
complexity is hidden from the user by the program,
although you should be aware of these factors.

Data
The total amount of data you are writing is much
less important than whether or not it contains large
or several small files. If there are a lot of
small files, the system may have problems with
locating and opening the files quickly enough to
send them smoothly to the CD recording drive.

The computer
Any interruption that may occur is fatal to CD
duplication, so you should ensure that your
CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT don’t load any TSR
utilities which may interrupt operations. Screen
savers, alarms and reminders, or incoming faxes
may also kill disc writing. You should also turn
off network sharing so no one will access the files
that you are trying to write, as this could also
kill your disc recording.

Hard Disk Speed
To write an image to the CD, the hard disk from
which you are writing must have a transfer rate
that is fast enough to keep the memory buffer full
in the CD recorder. This normally means an average
hard disk access time of 19 MS or better.

Defrag
If your hard drive has to search everywhere over
a fragmented hard drive for the data to be written,
it can cause the operation to slow down or even
cause a fatal error. Therefore, always be sure to
fragment your hard disk drive.

Recording speed
Most new CD recorders and even some older ones,
are capable of writing at two (sometimes even four)
times the standard playback. It should be possible
for you to select the speed; as even though fast
recording is a time saver, it can also cause some
bad situations.

When you copy an ISO (image file) from the hard
disk to a CD, the speed is rarely a problem as the
image is already one large file in which the
files and structures are already in order and
divided into CD-ROM sectors.

When you write from a virtual image, things can
get a bit trickier. In order to copy to CD, the
program must consult with the database to find
where each file should go in the image and where
it is actually stored on the hard disk drive.

Then, it must open the file, divide it into CD-ROM
sectors, at the same time sending the data in a
smooth continuous stream to the recorder. Locating
and opening the file is a bit more time consuming,
as writing is more difficult if you have a lot
of small files.

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Essentials Of CDR

The simple rule of thumb is that whatever you have
stored as a file on any other storage medium can
also be stored as a file on a CD-ROM. To the
recorder, a file is a file, and an ISO doesn’t
care whether or not the file contains pictures, text,
or even audio sound.

There are a few special cases, as to where you
would want to record a file to a CD in a special
type of format. The most obvious here is CD-DA
audio. If you wanted to record an audio file to
a CD so that you could play it back on your home
stereo, you would need to write a CD-DA (or Digital
Audio) disk.

When you copy data to a CD, you need to ensure that
your data doesn’t exceed the capacity of the CD
that you will be recording to. Due to the audio
requirements of CDs, the amount of information a
CD can hold is measured in minutes/seconds/sectors.
Each second can contain 75 sectors, each of which
are capable of holding 2,048 bytes of Mode 1 user
data.

By using the CD Size command in the edit menu, you
can set the capacity of the set you wish to
produce, which will help you to prevent exceeding
it. The status bar will show you how much space
you have used, how much remains free, and the
percentage of each one.

Even though this may sound a bit confusing at
first, keep in mind that it may take some time if
you are new to computers. Even though copying a
CD is quite easy, knowing the limits and how things
work is a bit more complex. Give it some time,
and you’ll be copying files to CD like the pros
do it.

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Duplication 101

If you’ve been shopping for blank CDs or blank DVDs
recently, you may have found yourself a bit
confused by all of the choices – CD-R, CD-RW,
DVD+R, DVD-R, DVD-RW, and DVD+RW. Trying to
figure out the abbreviations between them can be
a bit mind racking indeed.

To make matters worse for those who aren’t up on
the lastest marvels of technology is the rate at
which the industry of technology is evolving.
Just when you think you’ve caught on to the
concepts of MP3s and burning CD and DVD media,
new twists on blank media hits the market and
you found yourself confused more than you were to
start with.

The « R » found in CD-R and DVD+/-R media stands for
recordable. It will tell consumers that these
disks are blank recordable media. You can record
movies, data, music, and photos on the disc, but
the discs cannot be erased.

The « RW » on CD-RW and DVD+/-RW media stands for
rewritable. This lets you know that media with
RW on them can be recorded and erased several
times. Even though the prices for blank CD and
DVD media is inexpensive, you can expect to pay
a bit more for RW type media.

The biggest source of confusion stems from DVD-R
and DVD-RW and how they are different from DVD+R
and DVD+RW media. In order to avoid a long
technical speech on the differences, you simply
need to know that each DVD types can record
movies just like the next type.

DVD+R and DVD+RW are a newer more expensive
technology that offers a few technical advantages
over DVD-R and DVD-RW. None the less, DVD-R has
greater compatibility with more DVD players than
any other format of blank DVDs.

If you have a newer DVD player or if you use your
computer to play back media, you should have no
problems with DVD+R/DVD+RW media. Some say that
they provide a better range of quality, although
the quality is indeed similar.

Keep in mind that all recordable CD and DVD media
do the same thing regardless of their particular
brand or extension. Because there is not an
industry standard that involves DVD technology,
not every DVD player is compatible with each and
every format you see on retail store shelves.

For this very reason, you should always check with
DVD player manual to see which type of recordable
media it will play back. This way, you’ll know
what to buy the next time you go shopping for
blank CD or DVD media.

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Duplicating Within Your Budget

If you plan to produce, market, and sell your own
CDs, you have the need for high quality CD
duplication. If you have the need for great
quality and great prices, you should thing about
things before you turn to one company to do all
of the duplicating for you.

No matter what you use it for, CD duplication is
an expense that shouldn’t take over your budget
at all. Below, you’ll find several tips on how
to keep duplication within your budget.

1. Shop with comparison
All companies out there need to able to find the
company that is going to give them the best possible
price. If you have access to the internet, you
can do this online. Look from one company to
another until you find the best price that fits
your budget.

2. Keep within your budget
Although this is easier said than done, it’s
very important to find a company that can work
within your budget or you’ll need to get a bigger
budget. Even though you may not realize it now,
doing these types of things on credit can hurt
you later on down the road.

3. Quality
If your music or other CDs mean a lot to you,
then you should put them in the hands of a reliable
duplicator – and never skimp on quality. Always
make sure you a guarantee of the quality of their
work as well, to protect yourself.

CD duplication is a must have for the movie and
music business. There’s no doubt that you need
this type of service, although you should take the
time to find the best company for the job. When
it comes to developing your product – you’ll
want to have only the best.

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Disc Quality

The high demand and dramatic increase in CD media,
plus the competitive pressures to squeeze out
every possible cost and improve the profit margins
have given rise to many manufacturers of CD related
media. To help reduce the costs of increasing
capacity, many of these firms have relocated their
old manufacturing lines and hired staff that learn
on the job.

The biggest problems with CDs occurs when discs are
produced using older equipment then end up failing
when you try to use them. Luckily, most of these
types will fail when you first try to record on
them. There is however, a likelihood that the disc
will complete a burn and the media won’t play at
all.

The agony of taking your photo or video treasures
and putting them on CD or DVD and then deleting them
from your camera or computer only to realize that
the copy is corrupted is far too much to risk. The
brand name company’s such as Verbatim choose to
guard their reputation for quality and durability
by using only advanced recording dye and other
types of technology to produce high speed discs.

The stability of the recording dye is very critical
as heat, humidity, oxygen, and even UV light can
degrade the dye. Verbatim research has also proven
there is a strong correlation between the production
and bonding processes of disc quality.

For data and personal pictures that are important,
you should always buy quality CD media. Then,
before you go ahead and delete the source file,
trying playing the disc back to ensure that it
copied correctly. This way, you won’t have to
worry about losing your precious files and photos
when you remove the source from your computer.

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Differences Between CD DVD Media

Even though both CD and DVD disks have the same
media size and shape, the things they have in
common ends there. There are many different
things between the two, such as what they hold
and how much they hold.

Data pits and lasers
A disc has microscopic grooves that will move
along in a spiral around the disc. CDs and
DVDs both have these grooves, with laser breams
applied to scan these very grooves.

As you may know, digital information is represented
in ones and zeroes. Inside of these discs, very
tiny reflective bumps known as lands and non
reflective holes known as pits, which can be
found beside the grooves, reflect both the ones
and the zeroes of digital information.

By reducing the wave length of the laser to 625mm
or more infrared light, DVD technology has
managed to write in smaller pits when compared
to the standard technology of CD. This will
allow for a greater amount of data per track
on the DVD. The minimum length allowed for a
pit in a single layer DVD-R is .4 micron, which
is obviously more than the .0834 micron that a
CD offers.

The tracks of a DVD are narrower as well, which
allows for more tracks per disc, which also
translates into more capacity than a CD. The
avaerage single layer DVD holds 4.5 GB of data,
while a CD holds a mere 700 MB.

Layers
As stated above, a DVD has smaller pits and the
lasers need to focus on them. This is actually
achieved by using a thinner plastic substrate
than in a CD, which means that the laser needs
to pass through a thinner layer, with less
depth to reach the pits. It’s this reduction in
thickness that’s responsible for the discs
that were only 0.6mm thickness – which is half
that of a CD.

Data access speed
DVDs will access data at a much faster rate than
a CD can. The average 32X CD-ROM drive reads
data at 4MB a second, while a 1X DVD drive reads
at 1.38MB a second. This is even faster than
an 8X CD drive.

Universal data format
The recording formats of CDs and DVDs are quite
different, as DVDs use UDF, or the Universal
Data Format. This format allows data, video,
audio, or even a combination of all three to
be stored in a single file structure. The
advantage to this is any file can be accessed
by any drive, computer, or even consumer video.
CDs on the other hand aren’t compatible with
this format.

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